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Marine Pollution In Sub Saharan Africa: Analysis Of The Impacts To Shipping Operations And Marine Environment

MARINE POLLUTION IN SUB SAHARAN AFRICA: ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACTS TO SHIPPING OPERATIONS AND MARINE ENVIRONMENT

ABSTRACT
The work analyzed marine pollution and impacts in sub Saharan Africa to shipping operations and marine environment, (Case Study of the Nigeria Niger Delta region) is sectioned into five chapters. Chapter one dealt with introduction to the study. Chapter two reviewed the positions of other authors and chapter three dealt with the research methodology. Chapter four and five dealt with data analysis and recommendations respectively.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page
Certification                                                                                                i 
Dedication                                                                                        ii
Acknowledgement                                                                            iii
Abstract                                                                                           iv

Chapter One: 
1.0        Introduction                                                                        1
1.1        Background Information                                                     1
1.2        Problem Statement                                                              6
1.3         Research Objectives                                                             7
1.4       Hypothesis                                                                          8
1.5        Significance of the Study                                                     9
1.6        Scope of the Study                                                             10

Chapter Two: 
2.0        Literature Review
2. 1        Overview of Marine Pollution                                            11
2.2        Marine Pollution by Hazardous and Noxious substatnce
(HNS)                                                                                   11
2.3        The Non Tanker Spill/Bunker Oil Pollution                       14
2.4        Causes of Marine Pollution in the Niger Delta                   16
2.5        Consequences/Impacts of Marine Pollution in the
Niger Delta                                                                         17
2.5.1     Human and Socio-Economic Development of the
NigerDelta                                                                19
3.6.       Prevention of Marine Pollution Regulation and Rules 23
3.6.1    Special Rules for Oil Pollution Damage                      24
2.7      Environmental Protection Laws and Oil Mining
Companies in Nigeria                                             25

Chapter Three: 
3.0     Research Methodology                                         30
3.1     Description of the Study Area                             30
3.2    Research Design                                                            30
3.3  Method of Data Collection                                            31
3.4  Data Limitation                                                             31
3.5  Method of Data Analysis                                               32
3.5.1                   Summative Approaches                                       32
3.5.2         Simple Percentage                                                33
3.5.3         Incremental Averages                                           34

3.6            Test of Hypothesis                                               34

Chapter Four
4.0 Presentation of Data, Analysis of Data and Discussion of Findings                                              36
4.1  Data Presentation                                                          37
4.2  Data Analysis                                                                39
4.3  Discussion of Findings                                         41
4.4   Test of Hypothesis                                                     45

Chapter Five: 
5.0  Summary    of      Findings Conclusion and
Recommendation                                                 47
5.1  Summary of Findings                                                     47
5.2  Conclusion                                                           48
5.3  Recommendation                                                 48
References                                                                             50

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