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AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DRUG ABUSE, TONE OF DISCIPLINE AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
1.1 Background to the Study
Since the country’s independence, the secondary school system in Nigeria has been characterized by a high degree of discipline. The attitudes and behaviors of secondary school pupils were commendable and deserving of replication. Recent years have seen a precipitous drop in the high degree of discipline seen in our secondary school system, leading to an increase in all manner of social vices, including drug misuse. As a result, the researcher has opted to investigate the association between drug addiction and the tone of discipline in secondary schools in Kaduna, Nigeria. In our secondary schools, it is impossible to stress enough the significance of maintaining order. Students are the most valuable assets and most important aspects in every educational institution. Educating children on how to maintain a positive attitude and behave appropriately both inside and outside of school is vitally essential. As part of an effort to provide a well-organized and tranquil school environment while also maintaining law and order, the government and school administration set rules and regulations to regulate the actions of students while they are at the school.
The lack of discipline in Nigerian schools seems to be widespread in the twenty-first century.
Discipline among students is a component of socialization.
Students’ behavior issues are likely to worsen as a result of the recent rise in school enrollment, which will place more demands on school officials.
Teachers and school administrators are both held to the same standards of performance and accountability in accordance with applicable laws, rules, and regulations.
It is important to recognize that the education system as a whole is a productive effort with inputs, processes, outputs, and goals.
The inputs are processed with the goal of creating outputs that reflect the achievement of the aims for which the school was established in the first place.
The effective implementation of the aims and purposes of education, as outlined in the National Policy on Education, is dependent on the harmonious interaction of instructors and students, among other factors.
So, what exactly is discipline?
As Imaguezor (1997) explains it, discipline is a process of teaching and learning that supports development in accordance with the laws of a society, to which all members must adhere and the violation of which is considered a criminal offense and punishable by law.
The goal of discipline is to assist the person in being well adjusted, joyful, and valuable to himself as well as to others and the community.
To discipline someone implies to direct them to adhere to a certain code of behaviour that is considered acceptable by the general public.
According to Jemibewon (1976), discipline is a highly desirable attribute in a human person or a social group that should be cultivated.
Disciplined conduct is widely recognized as one of the most important features of any educated or cultured individual.
The problem of discipline is consequently one that parents, teachers, and administrators who are engaged in the development of kids’ character in the secondary school system are quite concerned about. There seems to be widespread worry in Nigeria about the absence of discipline in our educational institutions. The issue of widespread indiscipline among elementary school children and secondary school students, on the other hand, is readily apparent. A significant number of major incidences of rioting, arson, and destruction of school property occur every year in a large number of schools. Despite the severe incidences of indiscipline that make the headlines, there are many instances of truancy, disobedience, absenteeism, drug usage, violence, and other forms of indiscipline in the classroom that do not appear in or are not covered in newspapers on a consistent basis. Indiscipline among secondary school students has received a great deal of attention from parents who blame teachers for the indiscipline among school pupils and students, from teachers who blame parents for failing to fulfill their parental responsibilities, as well as from the government and school administrators for inadvertently passing and enforcing erroneous legislation and school rules and regulations.
Nigeria, like every other nation, wishes to live in peace and harmony with her fellow countrymen, regardless of their varied ethnic groupings or religious affiliations, as does every other nation.
Education has made a significant contribution to society and has garnered the attention of the government, among other things.
Because learning and teaching cannot take place in a threatening environment, maintaining discipline in our secondary schools and the school system in general is essential if education is to continue to garner government attention in the coming years. Our current educational system has accepted acts of indiscipline such as rioting and vandalism, as well as general lawlessness and the collapse of law and order, as a way of life. What may be the source of these acts of indiscipline in our educational system, then?
According to the World Health Organization’s expert committee on drug dependence, drug abuse is “a state psychic and sometimes also physical resulting from the interaction between a drug and a living organism characterized by behavioral and other responses that always include a compulsion to take the drug on a continuous or periodic basis in order to experience its psychic effects and sometimes to avoid discomfort of its absence, tolerance may be dependent on more than one factor.”
As a consequence of the ongoing use of a certain medication, it is possible that physiological changes may occur in the individual. It was defined as a drug by the Reports on Public Health Technical Report Series (1982), which defined it as a substance that acts on the central nervous system of a person to produce changes in sensations, mood, and perception; such drugs need not have any recognized medical value; however, the changes they induce are usually at the early stage of pleasurable use.
Drug abuse can be defined as the use of any drug, usually administered by the individual, in a manner that is inconsistent with the accepted medical, social, or cultural pattern. Drug abuse and use, particularly among secondary school students, can prevent the development of a useful and successful adult life.
In other words, it may lead to the decision to give up. From a historical viewpoint, the scope of drug misuse in Nigeria has changed through time. It is important to note that drug misuse has unique affects on the brain, which might vary depending on the substance being abused. However, practically every drug that is abused has an impact on parts of the brain that are involved in executive functioning. Drug misuse has a particularly negative impact on the brain’s capacity to suppress activities that would normally be delayed or prevented by the individual. A key finding of this study is that there is a link between drug abuse and the tone of discipline in secondary schools. It will also demonstrate that inappropriate application of discipline, as well as a lack of discipline or a laissez-faire attitude, on the part of both parents and teachers, is the root cause of drug abuse in secondary schools.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The association between drug addiction and the tone of discipline in secondary schools in Kaduna State is the source of the issue. Student disciplinary issues such as truancy, shoplifting, violence, drug misuse, and other social vices are being investigated as part of this investigation. The factors that contribute to these acts of indiscipline, as well as strategies for reducing their negative impact on the school and the community
In our environment, problems of drug addiction among kids in public secondary schools seem to be an increasing source of worry both worldwide and inside our own country’s borders. Some studies have discovered that drug use by school-age children not only impairs their academic performance, but it also lowers their Intelligence Quotient, making them more prone to crime and incarceration. Furthermore, drug abuse exposes them to a variety of health risks, as well as a slew of other issues (Boyd 2005, NACADA 2007, Nyassy, 2010).
1.3 Objective of the study
The general objective of the study is to investigate the relationship between drug abuse, tone of discipline and academic performance of secondary school students. Specifically, the study will be guided under the following:
- To find out the causes of drug abuse among secondary school students.
- To examine the relationship between indiscipline and drug abuse among secondary school students.
- To investigate the factors responsible for the tone of discipline among secondary school students.
- To recommend ways of curbing drug abuse and improving tone of discipline in other for the academic performance of student.
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions have been prepared for the study:
- What are the causes of drug abuse among secondary school students?
- Is there a relationship between indiscipline and drug abuse among secondary school students?
- What are the factors responsible for the tone of discipline among secondary school students?
- What are the recommended ways of curbing drug abuse and improving tone of discipline in other for the academic performance of student?
1.5 Significance of the Study
It is hoped that this research work will help students to build their personality and also the outcome of this research is expected to be of immense help to the students as it will help improve their academic performance, teachers, parents/guardians and the entire local government at large.
The findings of this research work will be useful to the Ministry of Education in Kaduna state on how to improve on the present way of enlightenment on drug abuse and also the proper enforcement of disciplinary measures on students in secondary schools.
The study will be significant to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature.
1.6 Scope of the study
This study will find out the causes of drug abuse among secondary school students. The study will also examine the relationship between indiscipline and drug abuse among secondary school students. The study will further investigate the factors responsible for the tone of discipline among secondary school students. Lastly, the study will recommend ways of curbing drug abuse and improving tone of discipline in other for the academic performance of student. Hence the study is delimited to Kaduna state.
1.7 Limitation of the study
Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, and interview), which is why the researcher resorted to a moderate choice of sample size. More so, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Drug abuse: The use of illegal drugs or the use of prescription or over-the-counter drugs for purposes other than those for which they are meant to be used, or in excessive amounts
Tone of discipline: to instruct a person to follow a particular code of conduct that is acceptable to the society
Academic performance: the measurement of student achievement across various academic subjects