1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Impact of political instability on implementation of Nigeria policy on secondary education cannot be fully discussed without briefly highlighting the circumstance and the environment with which the education system operates the settlement described today as Nigeria started with annexation of Lagos by John Beecroft in the year 1951.
According to Onwubiko (1973) ‘Beecroft intervention in Lagos was the first importance towards the subsequent colonization of Nigeria by British government, on the conquest of Lagos, the British government sought to establish and maintain a colonial state in Nigeria. With the introduction of British rule, western education followed suit.
Nigeria came into being in its presents status in 1914, when the two protectorates of northern and southern Nigeria were amalgamated by Sir Fredrick Lugard. As reported by crowther (1978). Florashaw, the wife of lord Lugard suggested in an articles ‘the time” of London that the several British protectorates on the Niger are known collectively as Nigeria. In 1947, the British colonial government divided the country into three regions, the northern, the eastern and the western regions. Each region had its own legislative at the centre Onwubiko (1983) in 1951 the regions were granted internal self –government and in 1960, Nigeria gained her independence from British government.
When Nigeria got her independence in 1960 there was a consideration about Nigeria’s union was so sudden and included widely different groups of people that not only the British created it but the citizen themselves had doubted whether it could survive as a political entity.
The three government parties in the region were the northern, peoples congress (NPC) in the north. The national council of Nigeria citizens (NCNC) in the east and action Group (AG) in the west.
All these inherited and adopted the western style of parliamentary democracy and educational system, unlike most African states, Nigeria had a viable and diversified economy with great potentials for development, giving size of its net and substantial resources.
Bishop Crowther (1979) maintained that ‘Nigeria appeared in its first ear of tranquility “yet within less than seven years of sovereignty , Nigeria was lunged into a thirty months civil war. Forty two years after independence Nigeria is yet to be articulate the most effective peaceful and acceptable method of changing its leadership. Over the years election results in the country were usually greeted with protest and often carry the hangovers of their political misfortune into the corridor of governance.
The unconstructive criticism of government in three power made it impossible to achieve the objective of educational civilian political leadership led the political conditions that adversely affected the educational system.
Within the period, government had promulgated a number of laws, decrees, and edicts to guide the operation of education ordinance continue to be used as law and executive rules in the operation in the country. The end of civil war in 1970 and the take over of schools by various states government brought with it the introduction of decrees and edicts as laws guiding operation of the schools.
The east central states (ECS) inevitable took the lead by promulgating its public education edict the other states in time made one amendment or another as the need arose. The edict of the east and Midwestern states replaced completion. The old laws had some common now features namely a unified teaching services. The take over of schools by the state government.
The establishment of school board and the abolition or educational functions of the local authorities
In another development, the federal government, in 1979 constitution placed education on serious list because of its dividing resources. The constitution spelt out of education was the full responsibility of the federal states and local government. it also empowered the federal ministry of education to control and monitor education. Similarly, the education Act of 1985 cited as the education decree No. 16 of 1985. A committee was appointed to advice” the government. Following the report of the committee decree No 31 of 1999, I established, the national primary education to affect the new policy on managing and funding primary education.
The decree endorsed the establishment of poor management levels. The decree also spelt out the statutory allocation by the three tiers thus federal. 65%, state 20% and local government 15%.
All states of the federation enacted relevant edicts to reflect the current trend. Each state has its own state primary education Board.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
According to the national policy on education (2001) “education in Nigeria is more private enterprises, it is a huge government venture that has witnessed a progressive evolution of government complete and dynamic intervention and active participation” in the new swatch editorial of December 12 2001:3 it states that Nigeria funded about thirty four thousand, two hundred and forty (34, 240) primary schools with an enrolment of eleven million, five hundred and forty thousand one hundred and seventy eight (11,540, 178) pupils and has 3, 105, 239 secondary school student and fifty (50) Tertiary institution. Even at this, we cannot pretend that it is well with our educational system. This is because of political instability. The root I our educational system has gone too far. Political instability has hindered effective implementation of the national policy on education by inadequate provision of resources. There an object lack of funds, personnel equipment and infrastructure almost in all secondary school in particular and other higher institutions in general especially in the east. The effect of this is the massive production of scientist who have never seen elaborates engineers who were never in any workshop and graduate that cannot solve problems of their immediate environment.
The resulted in educational crisis. A crisis that will continue to stare the nation straight on the face until we rescue education form politics.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to highlight the effects of political instability on implementation of Nigeria policy on secondary education. The study will specifically find out the effect of
- Political instability on the education policies in Nigeria with particular reference to Izzi Local Government.
- Political instability on the production of teachers in Nigeria.
iii. The impact of political instability on assumption.
- The impact of political instability on the student general performance.
- To find out the impact of the political instability on examination
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Ukeje (2002) education is our future; He described education as “wheat based, which can carry any nation to her development “centre” education is an instrument which various nations have devised for their progress. The results of these study will be of immense value to education practitioners and politicians/both civilian and military regimes) because it will help them identify the problems that hinder the successful implementation of the 18.104.22.168 system of education.
It will make the government find a better way and means to mobiles resources, and to drams up and implement, integrated programmes aimed at coal cost without detriment to qualify provision of education services. The study will help Izzi local government and others to tent itself to the solution of adequate supply of equipment facilities and infrastructures in our secondary schools, the problems of shortage of staff personnel in our schools, particularly secondary schools will receive priority attention by government.
Lastly, it will create new hope of employment for thousand of his country in general who graduate from school through practical learning experience created in our schools.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study covers impact of political instability on implementation with particular reference to Izzi local government especially some of the issue and politics that tend to cause instability since independence. The study will look at how political instability has affected secondary education implementation and suggestions on how to solve such problems.
1.6 THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK
Theory of structural functionalism: this theory as a concept was however, adopted in political science and specifically in the field of comparative politics. The concept sees the education as a system that need maintenance that brought about the stability of the secondary education in order words where the system fail to function result to the instability of the secondary education.political instability
According to Nwosu and Ofoegbu (1986) functions a generally used by scholars in political science refers to the contribution of a activity or partners of behavior to the maintenance of education in a given society. Precisely in Izzi local government area as a case study: they went further to state that, it is the observable effects of an activity that are necessary to the maintenance of education. According to them, function implies a positive contribution towards system maintenance of political stability on secondary education, while days functions is used to refer to negative contributions, that is, contributions that lead to the breakdown of the system to political instability.political instability
According to Olaniyi (1997) structural functionalism when related to the political instability on implementation of Nigeria policy on secondary education can be described as a means of explaining basic functions of the political structures in the political system and it is a tool of investigation. He further stated that it explains the relationship between the parts (structures) on one hand and between the parts and the other hand, the relationship is explained in line with the basic functions of each. This is because it is the contribution of each structure (part) that helps to sustain the political system of secondary education in order worlds were the whole part fail to function will results to the political instability on secondary education.political instability
So, the theory of structural functionalism is of the view that the implementation of Nigeria policy on secondary education gave rise to the stability of the political system which entails the structural arrangement of educational policy or policies in Nigeria, but in order words where the whole parts of the system. Education in Nigeria fail to function in respect to the policies and programmes of educational system will result to the political instability which does not favour Nigeria especially Izzi local government area as a case study.political instability
1.7 RESEARCH QUESTIONS.
In order to elicit necessary information for the study of the following research question are asked:
- Does political instability affect educational policies in izzi Local Government Area.
- Does political instability affect the teachers productivity in Izzi Local Government Area.
- Does political instability affect the teachers productivity in Izzi Local Government Area.
- Does political instability affect the production of quality students.
Is examination malpractice linked to political instability on Izzi Local Government Area.