EFFECT OF SCHOOL LOCATION ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
The present research investigated the relationship between school location and academic performance of students in introductory technology subject in urban and rural areas of Sapele LGA. It employed the survey design using 6 schools (3 from each location) in the LGA and with a population sample of 100 secondary school students drawn from JSS2 and JSS3. It used an instrument called the Location and Academic performance questionnaire (LAPQ) as an instrument of Data collection. At the end of the research, it was discovered that School environment has a significant effect/impact on the academic performance of the students, and that there is a significant relationship between school location and academic performance of students in introductory technology while equipment availability has a significant impact on the academic performance of students relative to introductory technology with P < 0.05 in all cases. The implication of the finding is that when the schooling conditions of rural dwellers are improved, they are most likely to perform well in school.
1.0 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The introduction of introductory technology in the secondary schools is enable products of junior secondary school acquire knowledge and dexterity that will enable those that cannot further their education be self-reliant or self-employed in the national policy on education based in the three main objective, which were formulated for the subject (introductory technology) at JSS level are:
- To provide basic technological literacy for every day living, and to stimulate Creativity
- To provide pre-vocational orientation for further training in technology
Introductory technology is a subject in the junior secondary which introduces the student form JSS 1-3 to technology which gives them foresight to technological based subjects such as elementary building construction, basic electricity, technical drawing etc. (Olisa, 2001). He added that the technology prepares the students to technological and engineering courses at the colleges of education, polytechnics and universities. Introductory technology is important because it provides new insight into ways of making and doing new things. It is also a way of doing things through the application and investigation of natural forces and materials. Introductory technology is used for the development of processes and devices that are indispensable to enhancement of the quality of life and human progress.
(Alwasilah, 2002) stated that, school location refers to the community in which the school is located, such as village hamlet or rural area 9fewer than 3000 people), a small town (3000 to about 15.000 people), a town (15,000 to about 100,000 people), close to the centre of a else where in a city with over 1000,000 people. Akilaya (2001) explained school location as specific geographical site of the school and it contains building where the school equipments are kept for educational use. He further explained that the location of any school must in most cases follow some laid down guidelines. This is so because the school should not be close to noisy environment such as the market, highway roads rails and very risky environments. He also pointed out that the most important thing in the consideration of the school location is the population that the school is going to serve and the distance the students would have to get to the school. This research therefore takes insight into the circumstances responsible of the academic performance among school student in urban and rural areas of Sapele local government area.
Inspite of the effort made by introductory technology teachers in schools to improve the knowledge of students in introductory technology subject through classroom learning and extra-moral class, it has been observed by teachers that students still perform poorly in the subject. The result of this may lead to unemployment, youth restiveness and other criminal vices in the society. Although academic performance of student in the subject varies from student to student, school to school, and location to location but a very poor in some student, schools and locations, it has been perceived that the school location, environment, inadequate facilities equipment and infrastructure are the possible factors responsible for the differences n academic performance of student in the subjects.
In essence, it can be said that the school location and other possible factors like infrastructure and equipment may have interrelationship with the students’ academic performance in introductory technology subject in urban and rural areas of Sapele local government areas. But more importantly this research is aimed at finding out the relationship between school location and academic performance of students introductory technology subject in urban and rural areas of Sapele Local Government Area.
Statement of the Problem
Inspite of the effort made by teacher to enhance the knowledge of students in introductory technology subject through classroom learning and extra-moral classes, students still perform poorly in the subject during examination. As perceived in the study, this problem crops up as a result of the school location, environment, facilities/equipment and infrastructure. Mecraken et al (1991) Barcinas (1989), all concluded that students performance in subjects in high in the urban area than in the rural area and that urban student have higher educational occupational aspiration than rural students, they also point at environment as factor affecting student performance in learning.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to investigate the relationship between school location and academicals performance of students in introductory technology subject in urban and rural areas of Sapele local government Area. Specifically the study is meant to:
- Compare how the environment is related to the location of the school.
- Compare the, students performance in Urban and rural settings in introductory technology;
- Determine how facilities and equipment affect students academic performance
Significance of the Study
The findings of this research will enable teachers, parents and educational authorities as well as the society to determine the factors influencing students academic performance as if is related to the school location whether urban or rural in Sapele Local Government Area.
Knowledge of such factors would enable each party to plays its role expectation e.t teacher will adjust their teaching method, patents provide their children with instructional requirement curricular planners will be able to identify and determine the area of deficiency and the nature of innovations to be introduce during curricular review. This study will also help to prefer remedies to buttress and improve the learning of introductory technology in rural and urban areas in Sapele local government area.
The following research questions would guide this study:
- What is the effect of environment of the school with regard to the academic performance of students?
- What is the relationship between school location (Rural and Urban) and academic performance of student in introductory technology?
- Does equipment availability in schools affect academic performance in introductory technology?
H01 School environment has no significant effect/impact on the academic performance of the students.
H02 There is no significant relationship between school location and academic performance of students in introductory technology.
H03 Equipment availability has no significant impact on the academic performance of students relative to introductory technology.
The Scope of the Study
The scope of this study focuses on the relationship between school location and academic performance of students in introductory technology in Junior Secondary Schools, the study will consider equipment availability, effect school environment with regards to nearness to residence, and nature of the environment. The study has as its primary focus the urban and rural location as a major variable in considering these factors. The study is delimited to the urban and rural suburbs in Sapele Local government area of Delta-state.
DEFINITION of TERMS
For the purpose of clarity, It becomes necessary to define some concept used it the course of the study:
Introductory Technology: this is an educational subject which is based on activity oriented instructions which enable student to reinforces.
Academic Performance: this is educational assessment of student in the area of the cognitive, affect, and psychomotor domain at the end of accessional examination.
Urban and rural location: it is the immediate environment where there school is sited, it can be said to be a place where the school structure is bee positioned. It can also said to a less develop area s likened to village when compared to the cities where there are modern structure and facilities.
EFFECT OF SCHOOL LOCATION ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS