THE EFFECT OF WORK ENVIRONMENT ON EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY: A CASE STUDY OF DELTA LINE
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1.1 AN OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY
Human effort in organization is indispensable. It constitutes a complex phenomenon to managers of such organization to comprehend. Accordingly, it is believed that every behaviour is a goal directed. Thus, for an organization or individual to engage in any productive venture, it must have underlying fundamental factors including the individual in that direction. Hence the effect of work environment in achieving set target for the organization must be in adequate condition. Therefore, the nature of office concerned with these things that influence workers productivity, which constitute the “why” of people behaviours? Why do people do things? Why is Ifeoma’s moral higher than Ngozi’s?, what are these increases in work productivity? These questions can be answered with the understanding of the nature of work environment and how these affect productivity. However, the organizational target can only be achieved if the environment is conducive.
Work environment consists of the office buildings, its furniture and layout as well as the physical conditions under which workers operate. it is also concerned with the external factors to the business which the office serves, the industry or other activities within which the business lies, the custom and laws of the community within which they operates. These environment factors are always changing and the office must react to the changes, but hoe does the customs and laws reduce workers morale? This question can be answered after investigation. Office and work environment are dynamic, but the most dynamic factors in the office is human factor. Workers today are more educated than before.
They are more likely to raise questions about their environment of work since management itself dynamic pro. It has adhered and addresses itself to the provision of good environment of work for workers productivity. But what are those increases that enhance productivity? Therefore, answer will be made after investigations. However, poor work environment and bad conditions have posed a great danger to workers health and therefore make them to work with less joy and enthusiasms and work progress is hampered and disrupted. An understanding of the effect of work environment on the productivity of employees cannot be over-emphasized or seen as overstatement in every organization.
Experience has shown that workers are directly influenced by the environment they find themselves or were their competence will achieve nothing in terms of productivity if the environment is not conducive. This is in line saying in respect of workers in public enterprises today specially those in Delta Line and his issue of unproductive nature of workers is compounded with the poor nature of the environment. Therefore, because of the adverse effect of work environment on morale of employees, the need for provision of good physical work environment for workers was stated by Mill in 1930 after the first world war. During this period, various management were concerned with the importance of maintaining loyalty and morale through the elimination of irritants such as temperatures, noise and pollution from their environment.
This was later spread out to include a wider area of disturbing influences like feeling of insecurity in relation to employment, unfairness on the part of supervision and not being accepted by one’s fellow employees. According to Mills (1983), the need for standard of working condition received legal backing by 1963 law and act of parliament which made it mandatory for all business organization to provide the minimum standard of interest that will enhance the performance of employees as an objective.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Every organization is set up for a purpose and such purpose which is generally referred to as the objective and this cannot be achieved if the environment looks unhealthy. The absence of important of work material as a result of non availability of some necessary office facilities like air condition, rug, good ventilation in some of the department in the company is a common feature. Some office or department looks depressing and un-stimulating. Some of them have no louvers, light and some with uncompleted roofs.
The state of affairs do not compete favorable with other office outside, some office with dirty and scattered environment, most of the departments has small floor space with materials tables, chairs, papers, files and other things scattered here and there. Some office were furnished without due regard to the relationship between colour selection and workers morale. Some of these facilities has colour which makes the office to be dark; in some of the department’s work service are wrongly arranged.
It is known from workers view point that the work of accounting typing etc needs good quality of light because of visual discrimination involved. As a result of non availability of good work environment, the performance of employees is in a declining state. Most departmental manager in the company pay no attention in accomplishing the departmental set objectives, as to be recognized and promoted at the expense of workers or employees welfare. These acts of negligence by the mangers have gone a long way to reduce workers performance or morale. The state of affairs in the company has resulted to negative attitude by the employees which is inimical to the progress and accomplishment of the company’s set objective. With an attempt to answer the questions in the research work,
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The aim of this study is to investigate and identify the effect of work environment in Delta Line, ascertaining whether inadequacy of the various conditional factors can affect productivity of employee. It is also geared toward ascertaining whether the nature of work environment lead to low productivity, absenteeism and lateness among employees.
Moreover, to investigate the level of productivity of workers under healthy environment. It is also to suggest strategies for enhancing the productivity of workers in the company. Hence the objective of Delta Line is as follows;
1. To create job opportunity for Deltans and to train technicians in the field of motor vehicle mechanic, welding, electrical work, pain ting and driving
2. To provide a reliable and affordable transportation for Deltans in particular and Nigeria in general.
3. Enlarge the revenue bas of the state by operating a profit oriented limited liability company.
Management of the company has repositioned the company on the path of productivity and to serve our commuters better it has embarked on a major policy decision that brought life to its operation.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
In the study, the following were examined with a view of finding answers that will benefit the organization.
1. What are the effects of work place environment?
2. How does the effect of bad environment affect the performance of workers?
3. How does poor working environment affect the workers morale?
4. What are those factors that enhance productivity?
5. How does customs and laws reduces workers morale?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The research statement of the following hypotheses have been developed
Hi: A conducive work environment has positive effect on employees productivity
Ho: A conducive work environment has no positive effect on employee’s productivity.
Hi: Provision of good environment is deemed to be the most potent among workers to enhance productivity.
Ho: Provision of good environment does not deemed to be the most potent among workers to enhance productivity.
Hi: Custom and laws encourages workers morale.
Ho: Customers and laws does not encourages workers morale.
Hi: The nature of work environment has positive effect on workers productivity
Ho: The nature of work environment has no positive effect on workers productivity.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work centers on those who are employed by organization to work for it. In other words, the study is X-raying all the workers in Delta Transport Service (Delta Line) as a special regard which is the research study and it covers the permanent site of all company known as mega workshop and administrative site, its loading bay in Asaba town and other substation outside the town such as Onitsha, Oleh, Agbor., Lagos Warri, Jos etc and it cuts across all categories of workers in this company ranging from managers, drivers, clerks and others. This area will assist the researcher to carry out a thorough research and analysis in other to really ascertain the effect of work environment on the productivity of workers or employee.
1.7 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
Many people in an organization try to attain a higher level safety or job security in their place of work. And this study when completed should be of immense help to different organization and individuals. It will help to highlight the effect of work environment on the productivity of employees in Delta Line , so that the management will look into the problems with a view to make an improvement on its environment. It will enable the management to create a minimum standard of good working environment for workers to achieve optimum productivity. The study is intended to highlight management to create monetary incentive alone cannot motivate employees to better productivity without the provision of good environment under which they operate. Moreover, it will assist to uphold or testify the idea that good environment is very important and indispensable to growing needs of workers. It will also be beneficial to prospective students who will need some information contained in this work to guide their own research work which is related to the present study.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
A general setback to most research works are: office facilities, human resources and job security are the major constraints expected to limit the extend of a study of this type, since observation interviews and questionnaire shall be constitute, the basic data gathering. The methods shall have projected effects on perfectness of this research, not withstanding, the researcher shall do a detail work on the subject which would ensure attainment of the objective upon which this research work was originally provided.
1.9 DEFINITION OF MAJOR TERMS
Definition of terms is to be specifically, understand for clarity and easy understanding of applied meaning of such terms as used in the context of this research work taking into cognizance the prevailing circumstance.
a. Loading Bay: This are loading and unloading point for vehicles (http://wiki openttd.org)
b. Environment: The surroundings in which a person, animals or plant lives (Derek 1997
c. Morale: this is the capacity of a group’s member to maintain belief in an institution or goal particularly in the fall of opposition or hardship. Morale is often referenced by authority as a generic value judgment of the will power, obedience, and self discipline of a group tasked with performing duties assigned by a superior. According to Alexander H. Leighton , ‘ Morale is the capacity of a group of people to pull together persistently and consistently in pursuit of a common purpose
d. Job Security: This is the probability that an individual will keep his or her job; it has been found that people have more job security in times of expansion and less in time of recession. Also some laws (such as the Rights Acts 1964)
e. Productivity: Is a measure of the efficiency of production. Productivity is a ratio of production output to what is required to produce it (inputs.). Productivity is defined as a total output per unit of an input. These definitions are short but too general and insufficient to make the phenomenon productivity understandable a more detailed theory of productivity is needed, which defines and explains the phenomenon, productivity and makes it comprehensible in order to obtain a measurable form of productivity. The efficiency with which things are produced
f. Prospective: Literally means “looking forward” it can also be refer to an event that is likely or expected to happen in the future.
The effect of work environment on the employees productivity is deem necessary for the productivity increment and high moral to work. The work environment has a far reaching effect on the morale of workers, but receive very little research attention specifically, this study is geared towards examining the various conditional factors of work environment ascertaining whether inadequacy of each of the various conditional factors can affect the productivity of workers. Base on the conclusion, work environment is improved such as neat ness, noiseless, proper arranged and ventilated environment.