corruption in nigeria: a threat to sustainable economic development

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corruption in nigeria: a threat to sustainable economic development

INTRODUCTION

Amuwo (2005) and Obayelu (2007) consider corruption as the exploitation of public position, resources and power for private gain. Fjeldstad&Isaksen (2008, p. 3) and Ogundiya (2009, p. 5) define corruption as “the betrayal of public trust for individual or sectional gain.” Obayelu went further to identify corruption as “efforts to secure wealth or power through illegal means for private gain at public expense; or a misuse of power for private benefit.” Corruptioni covers a broad spectrum of activities ranging from fraud (theft through misrepresentation), embezzlement (misappropriation of corporate or public funds) to bribery (payments made in order to gain an advantage or to avoid a disadvantage). From a political point of view, Aiyede (2006, p. 5) views corruptioni as “the abuse or misuse of public or governmental power for illegitimate private advantages.” His view corroborates the position of Lipset and Lenz (2000) that corruptioni is an effort to secure wealth or power through illegal means for private benefit at public expense. Tanzi (1998) adds that such abuse of public power may not necessarily be for one’s private benefit but for the benefit of one’s party, class, tribe, or family. Although corruption is global in scope, it is more pronounced in developing societies because of their weak institutions. It is minimal in developed nations because of existing institutional control mechanisms which are more developed and effective.

CHAPTER I

1.1      BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The effects of corruption on a nation’s economy are damaging. A nation inundated with corruption cannot be viable economically; neither can the system generate enough support/ affection required for the survival of democratic system. This is a situation in Nigeria where corruption has become part and parcel of the political culture. Corruption has indeed robbed Nigerians the benefit of economic development because scarce available resources that should have been deployed to execute development project have gone into private foreign accounts.

Corruption is widespread in Nigeria, not because the people are different from other parts of the world, but because the conditions are ripe for it. There are many reasons why this is so. The motivation to earn income from among the populace is relatively stronger; exacerbated by poverty, unemployment and low wages. In many developing countries Nigeria inclusive, accountability is generally weak. Political competition and civil liberties are often restricted. Laws and principles of ethics in governance are poorly developed and the legal institutions charged with enforcing them are ill-prepared

The research seeks to investigate corruption in Nigeria as a threat to sustainable Economic development

1.2      STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The problem confronting this research is to appraise corruption  in  Nigeria as a threat to sustainable economic development

1.3      RESEARCH QUESTION

1      What is the nature of corruption in Nigeria?

2      What are the causes of corruption in Nigeria?

3      What is the effect of corruption on sustainable economic development in Nigeria?

1.4      OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

1            To appraise the nature of corruption in Nigeria

2            To determine  the causes and effect of corruption on      sustainable economic development in Nigeria

1.5      SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study shall project the ill effect of corruption on the economic development of Nigeria.

It shall also serve a veritable source of information on issues of corruption

1.6      STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS

1            H0    Sustainable economic development in Nigeria is high

H1    Sustainable economic development in Nigeria is low

2      H0   Corruption in Nigeria is low

H1    Corruption  in Nigeria is high

3      H0    The effect of corruption on sustainable economic    development in Nigeria is low

H1    The  effect of corruption on sustainable economic   development in Nigeria is high

1.7      SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study appraises corruption in Nigeria and elucidates its effect on sustainable economic development

1.8     DEFINITION   OF TERMS

CORRUPTION 

Amuwo (2005) and Obayelu (2007) consider corruption as the exploitation of public position, resources and power for private gain. Fjeldstad&Isaksen (2008, p. 3) and Ogundiya (2009, p. 5) define corruption as “the betrayal of public trust for individual or sectional gain.” Obayelu went further to identify corruption as “efforts to secure wealth or power through illegal means for private gain at public expense; or a misuse of power for private benefit.” Corruption covers a broad spectrum of activities ranging from fraud (theft through misrepresentation), embezzlement (misappropriation of corporate or public funds) to bribery (payments made in order to gain an advantage or to avoid a disadvantage). From a political point of view, Aiyede (2006, p. 5) views corruption as “the abuse or misuse of public or governmental power for illegitimate private advantages

ECONOMIC   DEVEDLOPEMENT DEFINED

According to Imhonopi & Urim (2010), national development is the ability of a country or countries to improve the social welfare of the people, namely, by providing social amenities like good education, power, housing, pipe-borne water and others. The components of national development include economic development, socio-cultural empowerment and development and how these impact on human development. Without human development, which is the development of the human capital of a nation or its citizens, national development can be thwarted or defeated. In fact, human development is one basis for judging the effectiveness of the economic development component of national development (Ogboru, 2007; Ranis, Stewart, & Ramirez, 2000). As they observed, economic development expressed in GNP can increase human development by expenditure from families, government and organizations such as NGOs. With the increase in economic growth, families and individuals will likely increase expenditures with the increase in income. This increase can lead to greater human development. Streeten (1982) put it better when he said that development must be redefined as an attack on the chief evils of the world today such as malnutrition, disease,illiteracy, slums, unemployment and inequality. In other words, development must be measured in terms of jobs created, justice dispensed and poverty alleviated.

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