THE IMPACT OF WOMEN’S EDUCATION IN ATTAINING THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE NIGERIA’S ECONOMY: A CASE STUDY OF OREDO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE
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This study was under taken in order to investigate the impact of women’s education in Nigeria so as to know if the educated women contribute positively or negatively to the development of the country economy using Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State as a case study.
This study was limited to Five Public Secondary School Namely:
a) Oredo Girls college
b) Idia college
c) Edokpolor Grammar school
d) Edo college
e) Akenzua Secondary School
The findings showed that education of women has immensely contributed to the growth and development of this country and has brought about better stand and of living in their various homes. The findings also revealed that education women could stand anywhere to face any challenge socially, economically, politically and otherwise the study also showed that some educated women neglect their homes while in their respective Jobs.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Background of the study
Statement of problem
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Definition of terms
Design and methodology
Population and sample
Instrumental and data collection
Analysis of data
Presentation and analysis of data
Research problem analysis
Summary, conclusion and recommendation
Summary and conclusion
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Education is a training which incorporate, time, pain, lasting valves, cultural ideas, utility of experience which are geared toward the orientation of the mind to perform and exhibit such visible skill of change which are enduring and transferable according to Richard Amayo. Education can also be seem as the development of each unit of the society to maximize his potentials abilities and also to enable one contribute meaning fully to the growth of that community and share its accomplishment according to risk. Education can also be seen as complete and generous education that which fits a man to perform justly, skillfully and magnanimously, all in the office both public and private of the peace and wa-according to Milton.
Fafunwa (1974) sees education as an aggregate of all process by which a child or young adult develops abilities attitudes and other to the society which he/she lives. Horne (1976) sees education as the internal process of supervisor adjustment of the physically and development free conscious. John Dewey (1944) sees education as a continuous reconstruction of experience in which there is development of immature experience which there is development of experience which are founded with the skill and habits of intelligence. Education enable individual to develop abilities, attitude and acquired the norms and valves in the society. Education is the gateway to knowledge and development for the individual and the nation. It is best legacy that parents can leaves for their children and it is the most valuable possession that a person or individual can ever acquire.
The women here protested their commercialization or their being made consumer objects. They claimed that they have the resources to sustain and accelerate their social economic political and educational status and further affirmed that their male counterpart misallocates these resources. Woman here largely excluded from any place in policy making and other important position in public or private sectors. In post independence period in many developing countries Nigeria inclusive, education wag given to both men and women as a right to facilitate the developing process. Women can contribute to national development if they are educationally empowered. According to attain (1959) women have always been regarded as weak vessel but they have in react time refused the lag in terms of education. She said that woman have confessed that they have over come self select and mediocrity due to their exposure to educational world instead of being a burden or a liability to their husband they will support and help the family to achieve greater height and their children have more opportunities to be a literate than those of the non-educated people which will help to increase the growth and development of the society and the country at large. With education, women can partake in any field, political, socially, economically, religiously and soon in politics for instance which was almost abominated by men (male child) is now being appreciated by women even married women because they are educated and carefully participate to the growth and development of the Nigerian economy by being a politician.
Malam Kaita (1982) said that what a man can do, a woman can do as well, apart from bringing up children in the right manner so that they can match or fit with the present day society, advocated women have the chance and ability to contribute their talents, and knowledge in the task of national economic revival for the country growth and development. The educated women is better and more useful housewife and a mother, neighbors and citizen, community mobilizes and social workers and even a good philanthropist, we must therefore encourage the young girls (female children) and women with necessary attitude to benefit from the fruit of education not merely for their own self improvement but for the rapid growth and development of the Nigeria economy.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The bane for women education in Nigeria is entrenched in the nation’s new national policy on education which states that!
“With regards to women education special efforts will be made by ministries of education and local government authorities in conjunction with ministries of community development and social welfare and of information to encourage parents to send their daughters to school”
The tacit (understood) reference made to women education in the national policy on education is contained in the primary education section of the document. It must be observed here that no further reference was made to the provision of women education in this all important document on education.
Nagess (1995) opined that the absence of a policy statement on women education has reflected in the national policy on education (NPE), makes the NPE fall short of women expectation and it amounts to a total disregard for that section of the population in this country.
The plight of women, interims of education is further compounded by the negative attitude of parents toward female education. Some parents are usually reluctant to send their girl child to female education especially to higher levels like their male counterpart. Another problem closely related to this is the reluctance to acquire western education and misunderstanding on the part of the girls themselves about the value of the acquisition of formal education. In education equity means equal access to good schooling. According to Ocholi (2002) geography (in terms of location) and families, relative’s wealth has been discovered to also affect equity. For example in Nigeria, in the last few years, the regression (toward male, female education in balance) in basic education is reflected in the fact that the net enrolment rate of girls in primary school is lower than the female literacy rate Ocholi, noted that in 1995, 25 percent of girls who should have enrolled in school did not. It was equally observed that in 1995, the average primary school completion rates for boys and girls were 56.3 percent and 45.7 percent respectively. Most girls leave school due to inability to pay cost among of her reasons
It is however, an open secret today that Nigeria women are educationally backward when compared with their male counterparts. According to the 1991 national population census, women alone constitute 49.7% of the overall population with 70% being of Nigeria women 35 years and above are illiterate. The level of illiteracy is said to be thrice as high in the rural areas when compared with the urban areas.
Three fundamental barriers have been identified by Awe (1990) 10 be responsible for low level of development and enhancement of women especially for educational advancement. These barriers are:
i) Restricted access to education
ii) Reluctance to aspire and
iii) Resistance to women advancement within a patriarchal system.
Restricted access to education by women in this country is profoundly rooted in history, religion, culture the psychology of self, law political institution, limit women access to school when compared with their male counterparts for example it has been observed that Nigeria women are lagging behind their counterparts in developed and some developing nations due to the late start in educating them. This is caused by our tradition and culture which are hostile to women, the tradition and culture reduces them to kitchen manager eases and producers of babies, thus their ideally is expected to end in the kitchen a condition which ironically is detested by many parents thereby discouraging their investment in girls-child education.
Reluctance to aspire is another major problem against women education. This is main manifestation of African wrong socialization which tends to impress upon the women folk the belief that certain of subjects and profession are the exclusive preserve of men. Our socialization at the same time confines women to certain roles (e.g. cooking, baby making, baby nursing, home keeping etc.). This state of affairs is definitely a negative of the scientific discovering that women are not intellectually inferior to men. This is because of the fact that both male and female have 42 chromosomes in t5he genes. Furthermore, science has revealed that there are no innate biological or psychological reasons why girls should not do well as boys if given the opportunity and if provided with adequate motivation.
Resistance to women advancement with a patriarchal system is further manifestations to our cultural practices which convert interact to hinder women advancement especially for educational view points. The resistance is further engendered by cultural impediment imposed on women by her traditional assigned roles of housewife, mother baby sitter, member of inferior sex, stereotyped gender victim, among others. Thus it is stated that the problem of resistance to women advancement are culture based as they include those brought about by home work, conflict, ignorance or the part of many parents, erroneous belief that religion is against the provision of sound formal education to the girl child, gender stereotyping and stigmatization, socio-economic constraints and poor attitudes of some parents.
It is pertinent to note at this juncture that the greater access of men in Nigeria to education more than their women counterparts have very negative consequences on the latter. In fact, it has been observed that this unwholesome situation is the principal factor that is responsible for the preponderance of women lower position in work organizations and less paid jobs for instance, it has been noted by Oladunni (1999) that Nigerian women are found predominated in such a way that occupation as teaching, nursing services, agriculture, small scale food, processing, consequently it has been opined that majority of them are therefore poor improvised and susceptible to attack by a number of debilitating diseases such as vesto virginal fistula etc.
Other problem against women education includes the familiar problem in Nigeria like lack of funds, inadequate facilities; inadequate man power sexual harassment, conflicting societal role expectation, government policies and lack of political will to power implement the entire educational programme.
The inferiority complex observable in Nigeria, women can be attributed to the influence of environmental manipulation fore example, through the traditional socialization process of the typical Africa society, women are made to accept negative self fulfilling prophecy, stereotyping and stigmatization that they are members of a weaker sex, at present, the forces which combines to hamper women education and development in Nigeria could be viewed broadly to include denial of access to education, early marriage, confinement to solitary living, subjugation by culture to accept choices forced on them, discrimination and harassment at work, political disenfranchisement from elective and political appointment and exposure to cruel mourning rites upon the death of their husbands.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The need for women empowerment can only be achieved through the provision of adequate and functional education to the women folks. This is crucial because no matter how rich or vast a nation is without an effective efficient adequate and functional education for all citizens (men and women) education which as relevant to its immediate needs, goals and objectives, such as nation would find it difficult to stand on its own. The brand of education being advocated is that type of education in which is embedded the spirit of self realization and all that area needed for the country overall development like mass literacy, economic empowerment etc.
The need for women education is also informed by the fact that purposeful occupational achievement and satisfaction ensure by deep self awareness and understanding which can only be achieved through the provision of effective and functional education and or guidance and counselling. This has been noted is likely to guarantee women empowerment with its root based on women struggle to improve their status, the empowerment suggested is such that entails the process of challenging power relations and of gaining wider control over source of power. This however, cannot be achieved without the provision of reasonable access to formal education to the women folks; this is based on the premise that education has been adjudged to be viable instrument of change in the positive direction.
In the spirit of universal basic education (UBE), provision of formal and functional education needed for the women folk because
i) It would empower them to know and ask for their right to education, health, shelter, food, clothing etc.
ii) It would empower them to fight against every form of discrimination against their folk, assert themselves about their equal treatment with their men counterpart as bonafide citizens of this nation Nigeria.
iii) It would enable the women take decision and accept responsibilities for taking such decision concerning them.
iv) It would give economic power to the women and there by enable them to contribute their quota to the economic growth of the nation.
v) It would empower the women scientifically through exposure to science and technological education age and the challenges of the present technology break through unfolding world wide.
vi) It would help women to reduce materials and infant mortality through improved nutrition, improved child rearing practice, healt5h care and prevention against killer diseases.
vii) It would avail women the opportunity of participating keenly in the world of sophisticated policies and governance as enlightened citizens.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will reveal the attitude of women which hinder their education as well as the socio-economic benefit of educated women in the growth and development of the country economic. Education will also be pottered to these problem to ensure equal education of women and men.
The study in hanged on the following research questions:
1) Does the attitude of teacher in school neglect the education of women?
2) Does the education of the girl child (women) bring about the breakdown of culture?
3) Does your religion’s belief support women’s education?
4) Does parental educational background play a role in women’s education?
5) Does family size affect education of women?
6) Does the society support women’s education in attaining the country’s goals?
7) Does a woman really have low 1 Q as reported by men being described as fish brain?
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study which examines the impact of women’s education in Nigeria in attaining the growth and development of the country’s economy limited to five secondary schools in Egor Local Government Area and also draw sample from the secondary schools teacher and from educated and non-educated parents
DEFINITION OF TERMS
For clarification and prevention of possible confusion and ambiguity, meanings have been attached to some terms in the research:
Attaining: To achieve something, to actualize something
Development: To increase something or for something to change and have an increased size or take a new shape.
Education: Systematic training and instruction, school for the acquisition of knowledge, skills information etc by a more experienced person i.e. teacher.
Income: The money hat a person receives or earn as a salary, sales or from nay productive ventures.
Factors: Things that affect a situation event or process.
Growth: It is the increase of something for another new change (dynamism)
Culture: Way of life of people in terms of religion, marriage, belief, art, music, etc.
Attitude: It refers to a character of behaviour possessed by someone.
Prevail: It means to overcome a problem or barriers which stand as a hindrance to achieve something.
Shallow brain: The brain that cannot assimilate deeply and rapidly or brain that cannot reason/think deeply or indebt.
Community: Is a geographical location where people come together and habit it or a place meant for habitation of people.
Participate: To be included man activity or to take part in carrying out particular activities.
Weaker vessel: It refers to somebody that does not have much strength/might to do something or not having much say in something.
Polygamous: It refers to a family whereby a man marries two or more wives.
Upkeep: This is keeping something or somebody in a continuous good condition.
Philanthropist: A person that helps others who are in need financially and otherwise.
Women education: This is the type of education given to women in order to acquire any formal education or knowledge and skills under the guidance of a school.