EMPLOYEE ATTITUDES TO DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION IN SMALL AND MEDIUM SCALE ENTERPRISES IN PORT HARCOURT METROPOLIS
1.1 Background of the Study
Communication is a basic means that helps any organization to plan strategies for effective administration. Based on that organizing requires enough planning on the part of managers and other key staff of an organization. In some organization downward communication is required in order to enable the organization or firm to survive. Communication in its entity cannot be ignored in any small and medium scale enterprise. According to Benedict (2001:66) managers devote a great part of their time in communication. Based on such issue it could be agreed that managers do use various means of communication such as telephone or walking talkie to ensure that they always communicate with their supervisors and even subordinates, customers and other people of which they have an attachment in terms of work relationships with.
Communication therefore becomes very imperative because there is need for it. In addition as stated by James (2000:14) where communication lacks there is tendency for an organization not to progress. Again, based on Timothy (2002:14) communication brings about mutual and multilateral cooperation between management staff and other categories of staff in an organization. Through communication, there is close understanding and information dissemination among both senior and junior staff and among management staff and subordinate staff. Communication plays a vital role because according to Goldy (2000) it fosters to some extent motivation since information needed could be received via the process of communication.
Various organizations have their own patterns of downward communication. Employees who are also known to be staff do have some feelings about communication. Such pattern could bring either positive or negative attitudes from the staff. This study on its own wants to explore employee’s attitude towards downward communication processes. It could be ascertained besides downward communication there are others according to Luke (2000:44) which are: upward, lateral, diagonal and external. On the whole five communication processes are used by both small and medium scale enterprise.
According to Central Bank Measurement on Small and Medium Enterprise (SMEs) (2013), the central of Nigeria defines small and medium enterprise in Nigeria according to asset base and number of staff employed. The criteria are an asset base between N5 million and 500 million and a staff strength between 11 and 300 employees.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Effective downward communication between managers and employees in small and medium scale enterprises has not been effectively carried out. This is because a greater proportion of managers feel that much about downward communication is not needed in the enterprises objectives or goals which are: mutual trust between the management staff and other staff, Secondly the advancement of these enterprises in terms of productivity and good decision-making process.
Consequently this issue brings about this question: what is the attitude of employees in the global content employees of small and medium scale enterprises about downward communication?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The following objectives were set for the study, to
1. Find out employees’ reactions towards downward communication in small and medium scale enterprises in Port Harcourt metropolis;
2. Find out the different pattern of downward communication in small and medium scale enterprises in Port Harcourt metropolis;
3. Find out employees’ rating of downward communication in small and medium scale enterprises in Port Harcourt metropolis;
4. Find out how downward communication influence staff in small and medium scale enterprises in Port Harcourt metropolis;
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study.
1. What are employees reaction toward downward communication?
2. What are the different patterns of downward communication in small and medium scale enterprises in Port Harcourt metropolis?
3. How do employees rating of downward communication in small and medium scale enterprises in Port Harcourt metropolis could be found out?
4. How has downward communication been influencing staff in small and medium scale enterprises in Port Harcourt enterprises?
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study intends to contribute to additional knowledge on the topical issue and to academic growth. In addition, this study intends to highlight in more technical form employees attitudes to downward communication in small and medium scale enterprises in Port Harcourt.
Therefore, the study shall be very significant to the management cadre of both small and medium scale enterprises. It is agreed that at the end of this study, students in the department of mass communication, communication researchers shall find this study very useful.
1.6 Delimitation of the Study
The study was delimited to small and medium scale enterprises in Port Harcourt metropolis, Akwa state. The quality indicators were delimited to employees’ attitudes to downward communication.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
The study involved sampling of opinion of a cross section of population involved using questionnaire. There was the fear of the often subjective and interpretation and the biases of respondents while completing the questionnaires. However, since respondents were assured of the purpose for the research and that response would be anonymously treated, it was likely that the responses were honest and could be used to make some generalizations.
Secondly, since the instrument consisted of both positive and negative items there was the tendency of consistency in that response, the death of adequate literature on the topic was a limiting factor. Otherwise availability of literature would have added more weight to this work. Another limitation was that it was difficult to track down the respondents in different offices at times of visit. This was overcome by repeated visits. downward communication
1.8 Definition of Terms
Key definitions of terms were given below:
Employees: Referred to person employed as staff by small and medium scale enterprises in Port Harcourt metropolis.
Attitude: Referred to opinions and attitudinal reactions of staff on downward communication in small and medium scale enterprises in Port Harcourt metropolis. downward communication
Small and Medium Scale Enterprises: Referred to those companies who personnel numbers fall below certain limits. downward communication