an evaluation of the challenges of gate keeping in broadcast media organization (a study of crbc 27 calabar)

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1.1 Background of the Study
Gate keeping is the process through which information is filtered for dissemination whether for publication, broadcasting, the internet, or some other mode of communication like radio and television. The academic theory of gate keeping is found in multiple fields of study, including communication studies, journalism, political science, and sociology. It was originally focused on the mass media with its few –to-many dynamic but now gate keeping theory also addresses face-to-face communication and the many-to-many dynamic inherent in the internet. The theory was first instituted by social psychologist Kurt Lewin in 1943. Gate keeping occurs at all levels of the media structure from a reporter deciding which sources are chosen to includes media outlet owners and even advertisers. Individual can also act as gate keepers, deciding what information to include in an e-mail or a blog, for example. Journalists have long considered themselves the gate keepers of news and information for the public.

Indeed whether self imposed or not, or news broadcast, an editor judges which stories are appropriate, which sources are credible, which quotes are valuable, and so on. Gate keeping in early journalism history was not considered a serious editorial problem, because it was assumed that almost anyone could operate a press and express views. When presses became expensive and powerful, created major news organizations, the problem of gate keeping arose. Gate keeping can also be as a system of rules, editorial checks and other verification processes, which became important to journalism ethics with the rise of the modern newspaper in the late 19th century, when papers advertised claims of their objectivity and factual in news reporting. In this context, gate keeping became a norms of responsible reporting, where editors and journalists checked their report for fact and balance. Only by the mid – 1900s, when concerns arose about media power and concentration, did analysts begin to see gate keeping as potentially harmful to journalism and to democracy. With the coming of the internet, has information flow been freed from the gate keepers of mainstream news media? Or has news become compromised, barely distinguishable from rumor and gossip? The news media’s gate keeping role used to dictate the news worthiness of an event-in term of its importance and also its validity. The rise of the internet has, to resort to an often – used metaphor, left gate keepers guarding their gates while the rest of the wall crumbles away. Since the news media can no longer monitor what does and does not reach the public sphere, his task of gate keeping has become more methodological and analytical, stressing the verification of facts and the reliability of sources. The political impact of the mass media cannot be ignored. As stated by Brown (2000).

The political impact of the broadcast media and the important role they play in guiding the direction of political activity have made it imperative to the study of mass communication and its effect. No doubt we have accepted the popular view of media as omnipotent and capable of being used to inform and manipulate the audience. Based on the action, it could be ascertained that the journalists mostly those working for the broadcast are facing this challenges in gate keeping. As a result, despite the fact that the broadcast media is omnipotent, there are still hindrances that compel the broadcast journalist to be seen as ineffective.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
CRBC is one of the broadcast stations in Nigeria that has being regulated by government; the concept of gate keeping has being followed strictly. But with the advent of commercialization in which the public is made to pay for every single information. This poses a problem if the concept or principles of gate keeping is still addressed to, in the broadcast station. The concept of gatekeeping has been frequently used in the studies of the process of mass communication, especially but it remains to know if it has been applied as principles on CRBC TV channel 27? This research therefore seeks to verify the extent to which the principles of gatekeeping is applied in CRBC TV channel 27.

1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study seek to:
1. find out if the CRBC have a process of gate keeping
2. find out if the uses of gate keeping mechanisms have any impact on broadcasting in the media organization.
3. find out to what extent can gate keeping mechanisms improve broadcasting in CRBC media channel 27?
4. find out how the challenges of gate keeping in Cross River State broadcasting corporation channel 27 can be overcome?

1.4 Research Questions
This research work is aimed at providing awareness through those research questions below;
1. Does the CRBC have the process of gate keeping?
2. Does the use of gate keeping mechanisms have any impact on broadcasting in the media organization?
3. To what extent can gate keeping mechanisms improve broadcasting in CRBC media channel 27?
4. How can the challenges of gate keeping in Cross River State broadcasting corporation channel 27 can be overcome.

1.5 Significance of the Study
The need for this study is to support the fact that, if the CRBC 27, Calabar is to achieve the desired goals and results, gate keeping mechanisms remain an overcome concept. It highlight how the gate keeping mechanisms can be used in mobilizing efforts, to build a good relationship between the audience and the government, leading to smooth relationship and cooperation for development plans and projects . Also the study places gate keeping as a tool for development and betterment of the broadcasting media organization, through its informative, educative, entertainment and mobilization functions.

1.6 Delimitation of the Study
This research work investigates the impact of gate keeping in the development effort of Cross River Broadcasting Corporation (CRBC) Channel 27, Calabar and not the whole media organization in Cross River State or entire country. broadcast media organization

1.7 Limitation of the Study
In the course of carrying out this study the following problems were encountered;
Financial constraints, the nonchalant attitudes or uncooperative nature of some respondents.
Time constraint and other logistic reasons which narrowed this study to the Cross River Broadcasting Cooperation, Channel 27, Calabar.

It would have been more interesting to study much wider areas and know how other media achieve the same result with the use of gate keeping to enhance validity, reliability and believability if all these constraints were not there. broadcast media organization

1.8 Definitions of Terms
For the purpose of this study the following terms are operating defined.
Impact: The effectiveness of a programme on audience of mass communication; that is the persuasive influence of the channels or mass communication on its audience. broadcast media organization
Media: These comprises of all the channels of mass communication both electronic and print.
Development: A qualitative life style, a change for better, new and advanced standard of living brought about by good governance and management. broadcast media organization
Calabar L G A: This is one of the 27 Local Government Area in Cross River State of Nigerian used for the study.
Influence: The effectiveness of a programme on audience of mass communication that is the persuasive impact of the channels or mass communication on its audience. broadcast media organization

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