The Effect Of Global Flood: Problem And Solution
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover Page – – – – – – – – – –
Title Page – – – – – – – – – –
Certification – – – – – – – – – –
Dedication – – – – – – – – – –
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – –
Abstract – – – – – – – – – –
Table of Content – – – – – – – – –
Chapter One: Introduction
Background of the Study – – – – – –
Statement of the Problem – – – – – –
Objectives of the Study – – – – – – –
Research Questions – – – – – – –
Research Hypotheses – – – – – – –
Significance of the Study – – – – – – –
Scope/ Limitation of the Study – – – – – –
Definition of Terms – – – – – – –
Chapter Two: Review of Related Literature
2.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – –
2.2 Conceptual Framework – – – – – – –
2.3 Theoretical Framework – – – – – – –
2.4 Empirical Review – – – – – – – –
Chapter Three: Research Methodology
.1 Introduction – – – – – – – –
3.1 Research Design – – – – – – – –
3.3 Area of the Study – – – – – – – –
3.4 Population of the Study – – – – – – –
3.5 Sample Size and Sampling Techniques – – – –
3.6 Instrumentation – – – – – – – –
3.7 Validation of the Instrument – – – – – –
3.8 Administration of the Instrument – – – – –
3.9 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – –
Chapter Four: Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
4.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – –
4.2 Presentation and Analysis of Data – – – – –
4.3 Testing of Hypotheses – – – – – – –
4.4 Discussion of Findings – – – – – – –
Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – –
5.2 Summary – – – – – – – – –
5.3 Conclusion – – – – – – – – –
THE EFFECT OF GLOBAL FLOOD; PROBLEM AND SOLUTION(A CASE STUDY OF ABIA STATE)
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Human anxiousness as well as quest to improve survival chances and gain better control over their environment has indeed succeeded through man’s constant exploration, exploitation and alteration of the natural environment. This has enabled man to achieve urbanization, industrialization and development in general. These developments have not come without a very high price due to the vindictive nature of the environment.
The result or implication of human development is the evolution of serious environmental problems such as deforestation, erosion, global warming, flooding, pollution and recently climate change etc. these environmental problems have prevailed more in the developed nations of the world and urban centers in general. Flooding particularly has caused a lot of the world. This research focuses on the problems and prospects of flooding in Nigerian cities, using Aba urban Area as a case study.
In recent times, many urban Areas in the Nigeria have been facing series of environmental problems especially flooding. This is particularly the case with Aba urban Area where flood has constantly caused destruction of property and discourage socio-economic activities in the area. Aba urban Area is the commercial and industrial nerve Area of Abia State in Nigeria. Aba has a very high population which has increasingly intensified human activities in the area.
The increasing persistence of flood occurrences in recent times has undoubtedly attracted public awareness about the need to combat this environmental hazard to improve the economic viability of Aba urban center, the study area. It is perhaps the realization of this that prompted the Abia State Government’s decision to embark on the construction of a total of about 27 kilometers of primary and secondary drainage channels which is expected to drain an area of about 2000 hectares of land upon its completion (ministry of works Abia State, 2010). It is also expected that the drainages still under construction would supplement the already existing ones in the commercial city.
Experience has shown however, that inspite of the increasing awareness in combating flood hazard in Aba urban Area, the menace has persisted. This is because past flood control strategies have not achieved the desired result. The failure to achieve these results may in fact be due to lack of understanding of the dynamic characteristics of the environmental variable that influence the persistence of these flood and which is great importance in the formation of effective flood–control policies.
Inability of the state government to effectively control indiscriminate waste disposal in the drainages through provision of incinerators coupled with the poor drainage constructions going on, further worsens the flood situation in the study area.
Aba urban Area remains the commercial and industrial nerve Area of Abia state, with a very high population of about 8.5 million people (U.N, 2010). Aba urban Area is known for intense commercial and manufacturing activities in the markets, most popular among them is Ariaria international market.
These intense human activities and high population family contribution to increase the flood risk potential of the study area. Moreover, the physical attribute of the study area in terms of its relief, geology and soil also favor flood occurrence. Hence proffering solution to the flood situation in the study area would involve an in depth understanding of this socio-economic and physical attributes.
Flood occurrences are always occurring in rainy or wet season from April to September. Most areas that are more prone to flood are high relief areas which are peneplain in nature. They include; Okigwe road, Omuma road area, faulks road area, Ariaria market area, ngwa road area, ohanku road area, over rail-areas, and most areas in osisioma.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
There is indeed urgent need to provide reliable solution to the occurrence of flooding in Aba urban Area, the study area. Therefore, attempts shall be made to provide answers to the following questions which will arise in the study.
- The physical nature of the study area Aba urban and how it encourages flood occurrences.
- The diverse causes of flooding in Aba urban and the most affected areas.
How these floods can be effectively controlled, eliminated or even avoided to avert its impact on human activities in the study area.
1.3 AIM AND THE OBJECTIVES
This research is aimed at assessing the nature and causes of flooding in Aba urban Area, and to provide reliable and sustainable solutions to flood occurrences in Aba urban Area. To achieve this, the following objectives are set for the research:
- To determine the factors that are responsible for flooding in Aba urban Area.
- To find out the flood prone areas in Aba urban Area.
- To present a flood risk map of Aba urban Area.
- To assess the major impacts of flooding in Aba urban Area.
- To study with a view to establishing reliable control and management measures of flood hazards in Aba urban Area.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
- What are the factors that are responsible for flooding in Aba urban Area?
- Where are the flood prone areas located in Aba urban Area?
- What are the major impacts of flooding in Aba urban Area?
- What control and management measures of flooding are more reliable for managements of floods?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The following are the significance of this research; as the research is supposed to solve the following needs;
- To be able to identify causes and sources of flooding in Aba urban especially in Aba south, Aba north and osisioma.
- To assess the effects and discomfort there flood can have on individuals.
- To enlighten the public on the dangers of floods and its destructive nature on life and property.
- To serve as a base for more research work on the problems and prospects of flooding in urban Areas of the world.
- To identify and map the various flood prone areas in Aba urban.
1.6 THE STUDY AREA
Aba Urban Area is located in southern part of Abia state in south eastern Nigeria. Aba Urban is located within latitude 5002’ N to 5010’ N and longitude 7017’ E to 7025’ E. Aba Urban Area is bounded by the rural communities of osisioma on the west and north, it bounded by Obingwa rural communities on the east and Ugwunagbo rural communities on the south.
Climate of Aba urban Area is made up of climate variables such as rainfall, temperature, humidity and wind system in the area.
Aba urban Area and its environs experiences intense rainfall especially in the rainy or wet season. Rainfall is present all year and with and annual total of 2000mm-2300mm, with monthly average of about 180mm. This intense rainfall is induced by excessive evapourtranspiration in the urban Area due to prevalent high temperature.
Temperature experienced in Aba Urban is very high with an average daily temperature of about 28’c in the dry season and about 24’c in the wet season. The study area has low temperature range. The temperature situation is caused by study areas perpendicular position to the sun, since it is located in the sub-equatorial climate region.
Relative humidity in the study area is also high, reaching about 80% in the wet season and 70% in the dry season. Relative humidity is the amount of moisture in the air compared to what the air can hold at that particular temperature.
1.6.3 VEGETATIONAL ATTRIBUTES
The vegetation of Aba Urban Area falls within the rainforest vegetation belt. Trees found in this area are very tall, characteristics of the rainforest vegetation zone. These trees are about 30metres tall. These trees are evergreen with branches which interlace themselves to form canopies. The trees are close to each other in pure stands. This arrangement prevents intense rainfall and temperature from impacting directly on the soil. Trees found within the study area include; Iroko, Obeche, Oil palm mahogany etc.
1.6.4 SOIL AND AGRICULTURE
Soil of any geographical area to a far extent determines the nature and type of agricultural practice that the environment would adopt.
Aba urban Area and its environs have predominantly sandy and loamy soil which is a characteristic of coastal areas. This two soil types have relatively high porosity, infiltration capacity and low water retention capacity.
Unprecedented loss of agriculture land use space has intensified agriculture in this area. Continuous cropping is the predominant agricultural practice in Aba and its environs. Crops cultivated include; yam, cassava, maize, cocoa, Oil palm etc.
1.6.5 GEOLOGY RELIEF AND DRAINAGE
The geology of Aba Urban Area and the adjourning areas is made up of the coastal plain sand due to the areas proximity to the Atlantic Ocean. Aba Urban has a low and relatively even topography which could also be called Peneplain. Its lowest relief is along the Aba River with about 12metres (40 feet) and the highest relief is about 21metres along Portharcourt-Aba express way near Alaoji area in Aba.
The Effect Of Global Flood: Problem And Solution