ATTITUDES OF TEACHERS AND PARENT TOWARD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT IN SECONDARY SCHOOL
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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Corporal punishment is kind of punishment the causes severe pains to the body. It can be in various forms among which are flogging, picking pains, frog jump, uprooting trees and so on. Flogging which was mostly used in secondary schools was abolished in 1959 by the federal government thus generating argument between and among parents and teachers. Parents, teacher and even the society at large are arguing that corporal punishment be re-introduce to secondary schools. Corporal punishment should be used as a social control mechanism as it helps curbs indiscipline thereby establishing and maintaining a society full morally disciplined pupil. (Sulaiman 2013).
The area of corporal punishment was widely spread in school of Europe some several centuries ago. Corporal punishment formed an important part of the curriculum; Sparta boys were subjected to the ordeals of severe flogging as a test of entrance and manhood (Boycott and king, 1975.)
Gene et al (1982) defined Corporal punishment as inflicting of bodily or social pin to the leaner. Also according to him, students who misbehave are regarded as “bad” and are in need of punishment is applied it means that all other methods of punishments must have been adopted and failed before the school administer applies corporal punishment. Hence, Corporal Punishment could be seen as presentation of unpleasant stimulus to cause a reduced frequency of emission of behavior. Also Gene views punishment as arranged in order of severity and should be used in order as far as it is necessary to control the situation.
Also when universal free secondary education was introduced in the old Western region 1955, flogging in schools was banned. However, some parents and teachers opposed to it, they argued the Nigeria children are not ready for such a change (Abiri 1976).
Most parents believed that only the use of cane reform children and make them learn. Hence, the adage “spares the rod and spoils the child” they also believed that if one is too lenient in training a child, he will bring misfortune to himself and his family. Parents also stress the importance of obedience and respect to elders and thereby demand unquestionable submission to their will. Thus. They believe that the present indiscipline in schools is due to the ban on the use of corporal punishment. (Daniel 2011).
Since 1975, there has been an increase in public attention to the problem of indiscipline in our country in general and also in our schools system in particular. Early 1977, the issue reached a critical point when the them military government concluded plans to deploy military personnel to secondary schools in order to maintain discipline. (Bulus 1988).
In July 1977, the National Policy Development Centre organized a workshop on discipline in schools as part of its own study on national discipline. Also in 1984, the military government in power launched “war against Indiscipline” in the country. However, its activities towards the use of corporal punishment in secondary school were lukewarm. Although some people view corporal punishment as an act of discipline whiles other perceive it a harsh act of discipline. The application of corporal punishment is what that pupils would not be injured It is clear that the rate of indiscipline in our schools nowadays cannot be over emphasized. This raises the question of effective disciplinary methods in the control of problem behaviors. It is therefore essential to investigate the attitude of parents and teachers towards corporal punishment on erring pupils in secondary schools. (Bulus 1988).
1.2 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this study is just like any other study, is to highlight the importance of punishment because it is a general view that not all forms of rewards can make a pupil to be submissive.
Punishment is intended to effect a change in behavior, or break habits. Punishment is meant to save other children from falling prey to the offender’s act. For instance, if a child is identified as a bully in the school and the behavior is not curbed, he is likely to influence a few other children to practice same. The tendency to graduate into armed robbery is glaring. In a nutshell, punishment is well administered it can accomplish the following result:
(1) Teaching the child respect for authority.
(2) Forcing the child to do something he was not ready to do
(3) Blocking undesirable responses.
REASONS FOR PUNISHING CHILDREN
Punishments, whether given by parents or teachers must not be given just for the fun of it. However a child in junior secondary school in a town was noted as a perpetual truant. The efforts of parents and the class teacher to make him attend school regularly failed. To teach him that his behavior was detrimental to his academic progress and the eventual limitation of the behavior by other children in the class. Punishment is well known for the following reasons:
(1) Setting an example for potential offenders.
(2) Making children pay attention to class work.
(3) Motivating students to learn assigned materials ( Blair, Jones and Simpson 1975)
1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Corporal punishment is geared towards maintaining discipline in secondary Schools and it also curls juvenile’s delinquency in the society. However, problems arise when corporal punishment is administered on secondary school pupils. The use of corporal punishment however has generated much argument among educationist, sociologist philosophers as well as the psychologist No one argument aver this because of its controversial nature. This study will look into parents and primary school pupils. (Bello 1978).
1.4 BASIC ASSUMPTION
The main assumption of this study is to find out the attitudes of teachers and parent toward corporal punishment in secondary school specifically, the study seeks to:
1. Identify the attitudes of parents towards corporal punishment in secondary schools.
2. Identify the attitudes of teacher toward corporal punishment in secondary schools.
3. Find out ways in which corporal punishment can be properly administered in secondary schools.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:
1. What are the attitudes of parent toward corporal punishment in Secondary schools in Kaduna north local Government?
2. What are the attitudes of teachers towards corporal punishment in secondary schools in Kaduna north local Government?
3. What are the ways in primary schools in Kaduna north local Government?
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is centered on attitudes of parents and teachers towards corporal punishment in secondary schools in Kaduna North local government area of Kaduna State. It is also delimited to the teachers and students of the selected secondary schools in Kaduna North Local Government area of Kaduna state. There are Thirteen(13) Secondary School in Kaduna North, while the school listed below: Government Girls Secondary School, Tafawa Balewa Kabala Costain, Rimi College Kaduna, Government Girls Secondary School Doka, and Government Girls Secondary School WTC Independence way Kaduna. Random sampling was used in the selection of this schools to ease our research.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Due to financial constraint and the mobility, the researcher limit himself. in this study, the basis is on the significance on attitude of parents and teachers towards corporal punishment in selected junior secondary schools in Kaduna North local Government area of Kaduna State. Thus the finding will go a long way to assist both parents and teachers as well as policy makers in resolving corporal punishment in secondary schools.
OPERATIONAL DEFINATION OF TERMS
1. Corporal punishment: this is any kind of punishment that causes severe pains to the body.
2. Proper punishment: it is the kind of punishment that is carefully used, to help the teacher or parents accomplish his / her goal.
3. Counseling the offender: This is an open ended problem solving situation which a student with assistance can focus and begin to solve problems.
4. Re-proof: this is an attempt to call the attention of the child to the fact that his conduct has been noted to be unsatisfactory, and a need for a change is require
5. Doubtful punishment: This is punishment that may fail to achieve the desired effects.
6. Attitude: what you think and feel about something.
7. Parents: someone’s father or mother
8. Junior secondary school: A school for student between the ages of 12 and 14 or 15.