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A STUDY OF THE CAUSES, EFFECT AND REMEDIES OF DRUG ABUSE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS:
A CASE STUDY IN OREDO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE
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This study was carried out in order to determine the effect of drug abuse on the performance of students. A sample of hundred students from four secondary schools, Benin City, Edo State was used for the study. From the information gathered during the study, it show that drug abuse affect the academic performance of students. Data was collected from students in some selected secondary schools through the use of questionnaires, the following conclusion were made from the findings.
1. Drug education should be compulsory course to all students in primary, secondary and tertiary institution no matter their area of study.
2. Government should discourage illegal drugs procurement and the sales of drugs should be restricted to qualified pharmacists.
3. Counselling programme should be established be it educational, family, psychotherapy, religious and recreational which must be use by government to put the community alright in substance abused and used.
4. Drug free club should be established in schools. Health campaign programme should be intensified in the community.
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Research over the past two decades has tried to determine how drug abuse begins and how it progresses from time immemorial, the use of drugs has always been associated with the existence of mans. In the earliest societies, man ahs always thought that disease was as a result of the gods being angry and to prevent or cure such diseases sacrifices were made. As society settled down in scattered settlements, they needed to keep their surrounding clean. This emphasis from the gods as the causative factors of diseases shifted to the environment. They discovered that disease were caused by pathogens.
Basically, medication were made from roots, herbs, leaves and other natural materials when they are identified or thought to have medicinal properties the use of these substance data back to early history. The ancient Egyptian for example were highly skilled in making and using medication for treatment for both external and internal infection. Most of the drugs we use today originated from nature are now produced synthetically legally manufacture drugs are produced under carefully controlled conditions. In this process, they are examined tested for standard and quality before being approved for sale and use. All drug when produced are manufactured specially for certain ailment or condition of certain people. Drug abuse has become a problem today to our secondary school students. It means the use of drugs of a non-medical or non-scientific purpose with the potentiality of harm to the user and to the locality.
From research, the task with witnessed are upsurge in the number of drug that are commonly abused by students in locality and the world at large. However, illicit drug use and abuse are rising among all sector of the population, not just the young. It has also been observed that population involved in the abuse and use of drug across social economic background and educational level as both the liberate and illiterate get involved and that secondary school students are most involved in drug abuse and even the female students. It is acting and sad amazement to note that secondary school students are mostly at risk of drug abuse who in Edo State make up a great portion of our population. It is observed that if drug abuse is rampant among this group of youths female leader of the locality may as well sink into a marshy from the research many students die every year of drug abuse. Illegal trade in drug is multi-billion dollar business which threatens to corrupt and destabilize the economy of many people. Also the degree of drug abuse is rather heightened with the involvement of primary pupils, secondary school students etc in the act. Furthermore, drug on its own is a chemical that influences or modifies the action of the body’s own chemistry in other words, it is any substance, which when taken modifies the body function or substance, when used affects the body and mind. It does this by changing the body’s function and or behaviour of the user. Unfortunately most of the students ignore such medical advice or direction but indulge in drug or misuse. It is important to note that drug abuse is not confined simply to the abuse of dangerous drugs like narcotics, opium, heroine etc but also the abuse of cocaine, panadol, antibiotic, laxative, kola nuts,, alcohol etc in other words even substance from food is a drug harmful or dangerous if not take properly. Drugs abuse arise when drug are being taken without medical prescription or in excess of prescribed dosage for example imagine anxious mother seeing that her child who has stomach pain, went and bought antibiotic syrups and gives to the child because such was prescribed for a friend child who has stomach pain and was very effective, we said that such person is guilty of drug abuse. Classification of drugs is as follows:
1. Stimulants such as tobacco, cocaine, kola nuts, coffee, cigarette etc.
2. Depressants hyporotic and sedatives such as alcohol, barbiturates etc.
3. Hallucinogens such as tetrahedral caunabina (cannabis)
4. Narcotics such as morphine, codeine, heroine etc.
5. Anxiolytic/tranquilizer such Benzodiazephine, diazepam such as popularly known as valium etc in order to reduce or prevent the rate of drug abuse among the students, the role of the teachers, parents, and government and guidance counsellors as well cannot be undermined.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
Drug abuse has statically remained a major concern and focus of various teacher, parents, government and as well guidance counsellors, which have through several policies made by legislatures over the years tried to prevent or reduce the menace of drug abuse among youths or students in secondary school.
Moreso, drug abuse has been observed to be rampant among the secondary school students institution in Oredo LGA in Edo State.
PURPOSE OF STUDY
The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of drug abuse and the role of teachers, parents, and government and guidance counsellor in preventing drug abuse among students in our secondary school in Oredo LGA of Edo State.
1. Ascertain the various methods, ways and approaches adopted by teachers, parents (families) including government, schools, community, contents, delivery n controlling drug abuse.
2. Find out the level of understanding of both students and teachers in drug abuse.
3. Find out whether some unpleasant action have resulted from drug abuse among secondary school students in Oredo LGA in Edo State.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The outcome of this study should be abused to serve as reference or as a reading text to many who want to give broader knowledge about the cause, effects and remedies of drugs rehabilitation centres with the help of the ministry of Health drug Inspection unit (DTU). Above all, this piece of work will help to offer proper useful suggestions on the implication of drug abuse and most especially the roles of parents and teachers, guidance counsellor in preventing or reducing the rate of it abuse. Generally, drugs are abuse or misused because they alter the mode of behaviour of an individual. A worldwide scholar known as Smith (1969) classified drug user into four categories as:
a. Experimental drug users
b. Compulsive drug users
c. Periodic or recreational drug users
d. Ritualistic drug users.
Experimental Drug User: The experimental drug users starts because of the need to satisfy one’s curiosity or yield to pressure from ones friend or close person. The first experience with the drug may be unpleasant to the user and he or she may stop and never try it again, while some may be encouraged by habitual users that the first unpleasant experience will pass away and more frequent use will bring pleasurable effects.
Periodic or Recreational Drug Users: The periodic or recreational drug users and excitement, the individual has gone beyond experimental stage, by becoming a regular user, he or she has developed some social pattern for its use and generally he is a practical user of one specific drug rather than multiple drug users.
Compulsive Drug Users: The compulsive drug users develop on physical or psychological dependence on one or more drugs, the group comprises as many adult as adolescent most of whom are seeking euphoric state that will break the routine or boredom of their lives.
Ritual Drug users: The ritualistic drug users believed that drug provide spiritual or religious experience. This group is made up of cultist who seeks revelation through the injection of drugs. More so, Smith (1969) proceeded and made a second classification of people who are likely to develop drug dependence as follows:
Young people who are looking for vioke. People who have problem and need drug to sleep or lighten their burden.
People of advancing age who usually experience aches and pains. People whop are genuinely ill and indicated with such drugs in the hospital.
1. Drug abuse causes mental illness, other health hazards and social disorders.
2. Drugs abuse lead to failure of students and dropout from school.
3. Drug abuse affects the academic performance of students.
4. Implication of drug abuse among students result from peer group influence.
5. Drug abuse can be prevented through multi-component programme, (family and school programme)
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is limited to secondary school in Oredo LGA (Edo State) two schools were selected, these include: Ihogbe College.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Health- The world organization defined health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well being, and not merely an absence of diseases and infirmity. It is on the basis of this definition of health that th perception of the effects of drug abuse the role of parents and teacher I preventing on health of student was based.
WHO: the world health organization is the main body concerned with international hearth
Dose: A specific quantity of medication of the administered at one time.
Sedatives: These are drug that soothe or induce an individual.
Stimulants: There refer to drinks or drugs which act in a way that is opposite to sedative and make the brain active.
Narcotic: A drug which produces abnormal deep sleep.
Heroine: The same brand with Indian hemp but gotten from different parts mostly found in American and it has effect on the central nervous system.
Parent Medicine: Medicine that can be obtained without doctor’s prescription (e.g. Asprin)
Diagnosis: The act of distinguishing one disease from another.
Chemist: An individual skill in drug.
Prescription: A written direct for the administration of drug as remedy.
Barbiturate: Drug used for relaxing the nerves and used to induce sleep.
Drug used: This is an individual that takes or that apply drug.