THE COMMUNITY PARTICIPANT IN FINANCING PRIMARY EDUCATION,
A CASE STUDY OF OVIA SOUTH WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, BENIN CITY
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The success of my educational system is a collective responsibility of every component of the system in service to the organization, the successes of Nigeria primary education is hinged in cooperation between individual, parents, community and government, the position of primary education is very imperative and today the local community has bluntly refused to cooperate and participate in the financing the crucial level of education but leave it at the mercy of the government. It is in the predicament that this study is designed to investigate the extent of the community participation in the south west local government area of edo state. It is in this search light that structure questionnaire twenty items was designed especially on area of focus and administered on a number of people in randomly selected in the area of study.
How the finding are revealed that:
1. Primary school in Nigeria is not properly financed as government is the only major source of finance.
2. Local communities do not cooperate with the government in financing the crucial level of education since the whole system in confronted with insufficient fund. Moreover, the investigation is of the opinion that;
a. There is urgent need for joint participation of local community’s voluntary agencies and individual for effective performance and management of primary education in Nigeria.
b. Government should therefore seek for alternative source of finding primary education as try to evolve a participation policy in finding education in Nigeria.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Background of study
Statement of problem
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Scope of the study
Limitation of the study
Definition of terms
Review of related literature
Indigenous education and community participation
Primary school and community participation
During the colonial period
Primary schools management under the new dispensation
Problem of primary education in Nigeria
Prospect of primary education in Nigeria
Population and sampling research and sampling
Method of data administration collection
Method of data analysis
Discussion of finding
Summary, conclusion and recommendation
Suggestion for further study
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
There is gainsaying the fact that education is very vital to the peace of socials, political and economic development of any nation. This is why most nations of the world strive to devote a sizeable proportion of their cross national income into developing the educational sector.
According to world bank (2002) in Nigeria between 7.6% and 7.9% of our annual expenditure is devoted to education” management of primary education refer to the process of planning, directing, staffing, coordinating, budgeting for reporting our primary education system.
Primary education in Nigeria refers to the education which children receive from the age of 6 years to 11 years plus. It the foundation level of the educational system which runs for six years and it is aimed at developing basic literacy numeracy, communication skills and transmission of the culture of the people to younger generation.
The federal government of Nigeria has taken the responsibility of financing education in Nigeria alone, it has dissolved other source of finance and latter have them seen education as a national duty to be perform. However, community, individual and organization in the financing of education but this is not true in the real sense since government have taken over primary schools completely from voluntary agencies embarking on a laudable programme such as U.P.E and carryout the wages in school alone without a slighted resources other source.
Although this government hold step was highly appreciated. It did not last long as a result of the economic recession brought about by deprecation of oil price in the world market government do not find it simple to bring in community to participate in financing education and the financial aspect of education is one of the major problem facing educational development in Nigeria.
Before now, education in Nigeria has passed through some seting stage of development before the advent of formal education. Nigeria use to have indigenous system of education which involves the participation which involves the participation of all members of the communities. The western kind of education was introduction an country this education was welcome by the local communities because it create room for their participation of the local communities hence the members of the missions. When government assured the full control of education responsibility, all alone with financing it with oil money the participation of local communities were not encouraged and this enhance distortion to the entire educations system.
But note, before this assumption of schools by the government, the voluntary agencies such as Christian, Muslim and other organization were these responsible for education. The communities were not left out their effort in participating for the financing of education, some events beyond construction of schools, staff rooms for the teachers. A case in point is that of Iguogun primary school Iguogun in Ovia South West Local Government Area of Edo State. Where communities did participate in the construction of school and even the staff rooms for the teachers.
The efforts were focus towards government of education in these days before the take over by the government. But now the area of government expenditure is widened and the economic of the nation is in state of paralysis. In their regard the strength of government to provide the necessary schools materials is weak, now the government sick for alternative of sharing the responsibilities with other source of income.
Sincerely speaking, there is no head hidden in the fact that Nigeria schools are below standard of normancy in view of scarcity of resource to finance their schools and its facility are out of use and irregular payment of teacher salaries. It the predicament that government transformed the funding and administration of primary education to local government has generated a lot of difficulties in the educational sector because; the local government could not afford to shoulder this responsibilities of primary schools. Primary education is left unconcerned for since federal government couldn’t make authentic policy statement about whose responsibility is it to handle this important level of education and this has been the problem since till date.
Now, the primary education is been handle by the federal government but things are not done in a normal ways, this research therefore set act to analysis the community participation in primary school administration in Ovia South West Local Government.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In the time past, analysis has shown that primary education is in a great predicament in Nigerian because of the ability of the federal government to seek for alternative source of founding education especially from the local communities, voluntary organization, individuals and philanthropists even though it has been ascertain that government alone cannot provide necessary or required materials. This has infant thrown the teaching and leaning situation in primary school into a sad condition were unrest in this order of the day.
Ovia South West Local Government has part of this larger society (Nigeria) has her own share of their problem, and even presents a complex and peculiar situations for instance the teachers salaries are not pay regularly, the teaching and learning situation are jeopardized, the materials needed for teaching are not available, the school building are out dated (dilapidated) and the management of primary school in a state of confusion due to lack of participation of the communities in the financing of primary school system.
Education serve as a major role or therefore necessary for the communities to contribute or rather participate adequately in the financing of primary schools especially at the level of the primary schools education as the bedrock on which the progress or failure of the whole nation hope on.
The following are to be answered extensively as they will throw more light on the extent while primary education can be encouraged in Nigeria as a whole of Ovia South West in particular:
1. Does availability of instructional materials and other classroom essential facilities have any effect on the standard of primary education in Nigeria today?
2. To what extent will communities’ participation in funding primary education help in improving education of our pupils?
3. To what extent can the joint participation between the government and local communities enhance primary school?
4. To what extent will community involvement enhance the management of primary schools facilities and funds?
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The research work is purposefully set out to investigate analysis and examine the point in which community participation in financing education in Ovia South West Local Government Area. It is a wide open and clear that the financial burden of the primary education in Nigeria at large, Ovia South West precisely cannot be over look and it cannot be left for the local government alone or else the primary education will decay and then the entire nation will collapses.
Also, the study will also help to correct the following standard of primary education y encouraging and challenging both individual, voluntary agencies and local government/communities to reconsider response to pounding basic facilities and adequate financial and adequate financial predicament.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The need for education in our society and nation at large cannot be over emphasized because it make the people easy read but difficulties to rive, easy to govern but impossible to sustain throughout this research work we shall no the extent to which the people of the land have satisfied the extent to which the people of the land have satisfied the above statement.
Again Ovia South West Local Government has no record about its literacy of educational programme. Therefore it is important to carry out these types of study as it will be useful to educational planners and organizers of the various educational programmes of local government in particular.
The greatest problem that our education programmes have been experiencing till today is lack of sufficient fund to carry out educational programmes already planned activities.
Then what shall we do to remedy this highly situation? This research work will suggest adequate solution which will be of interest to those concerned with education development plans.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is geared towards investigating the role of community participation in financing primary Education. Mean while this impediment of communities not participating in this financing of primary education can be observed throughout the state and country at large however this research work is specked to primary schools in Ovia South west Local Government and it is restricted to some village under Ovia South West Local government area of Edo state known as Iguobazuwa, Umaza and Iguogun presidely.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Below is the definition of some key terms used in this study.
(1) Community: A group of people living together and share common interest. Community in this passage referred to different towns and villages in ovia south west local government area.
(2) Primary Education: This beginning of rearing of our offspring in a formal setting to the need of the community. It is an institution of rudiments of knowledge but in this study primary Education especially include the public schools owned by the government.
(3) Financing: It is the involvement of people or community sharing idea in items of labour or finance for enhancing proper management and development.
(4) Participation: It is the involvement of people or community sharing idea terms available in labour, finance and human
Resource for enhancing proper management and development
(5) Community development. this means the development of this
Democratic participation which enable the people to cooperation and embrace the spirit of self-help in the execution
Of programme related to their development.