Poverty, the inability to provide the basic necessities of life for one’s self. This inability has divided the country or society into a few rich and a large number of poor masses. As the rich struggle to maintain and advance their status, the poor finding the effort at improving their lot and not working seem determined to balance the equation by violent crimes against the rich, as a result insecurity becomes the beam of the society.
Poverty has been one of the greatest concerns of most developing countries from ancient days to this present era. Though it is a global phenomenon, it is more prominent in the developing [country). All over the world, poverty reduction forms the prime objective of economic returns, policies and programmes and yet this economic development especially in the developing country. The sluggish improvement in the economic growth variables in Nigeria, especially in the post –SAP era has been attributed to rapid increase in the number of people living below the poverty.
Poverty has indeed assumed an unprecedented proportion in Nigeria, manifesting not only in abysmal decline in economic indicator but more glaring and tragically in the suffering and hardship in the vast majority of people. By 1989 for instance more than 70% of Nigerians were living below one Dollar a day, given the embarrassing poverty level, in Nigeria. The National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) was geared towards channeling national budget into focusing on programmes and projects that would culminate in strong economic growth as means of significantly raising the standard of living. Poverty can be described as a lack of common necessity over basic consumption needs i.e. a situation of inadequate level of consumption giving rise to insufficient food, clothing and shelters.
The reduction of poverty effort is aimed at lifting out persons trapped in poverty web and preventing those above poverty line from slipping under. Since Nigeria returned to democratic rule in 1999, various poverty reduction programmes was introduced during Obasanjo’s administration. One of the instruments that government has identified to tackle poverty and promote economic development in Nigeria is the promotion of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMES).
On attainment of office, late President Umar Musa Yar’Adua unveiled his planed policies and programmes which are at aimed will alleviating Nigeria from poverty. This programme had in inclusion the short term programme which is the “Seven Point Agenda” and the long term project of vision 2020:20 which is aimed at making sure that Nigerians were not only out of poverty rating but also among the first 20 most advanced nations of the world.
Although poverty has remained stubbornly high in most African countries for decades but there a sign of relief, if these policies are adequately, fashioned, planned and programme. Records reveal that over one billion people across the world live in poverty with Nigeria having over 60 million of this number i.e. 6% of the total figure (Nwachuhwa 2006)
Poverty has assumed such global dimension that it has suddenly become a condition for debtor nation to prepare and of course foster what is now called poverty reduction strategy paper to earn any form of attention from the World Financial Institution (Nnamani 2006). President Olusegun Obasanjo made a successful attempt during his regime when he sought a debt relief from the Paris Club.
The Government of late President Umar Musa Yar’ Adua knowing Nigeria is classified among the poorest countries in the world (UNDP 1997) made serious effort to alleviate poverty through different means especially through the various and many reforms, introduced the short term project of seven point agenda and the much proclaim vision 202020 which the government considered major long term project they are giving Nigeria.
It will be interesting to know that the current government of Goodluck Jonathan has taken over with the vision 2020:20 programmes which has a shape of difference from the former practice
It should be said here that though the challenge of poverty reduction is immense for the global community in general and Nigeria in particular. To remedy this situation, government should encourage the upsurge of collective participation and bring in various organ of government including, the media and the general citizenry.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It is clear that many factors are responsible for poverty in Nigeria. Those include local managerial incompetence, failure to translate policies into products and implement them fully, conscientiously and efficiently, bribery and fraud, external intervention with the particularly divesting social effects of externally inspired and other incoherent policies of reform. Corruptions in Nigeria breads inefficiency, diminish productivity, discourage investment, great fuels inflation and capital flight and institute a regime of poverty and unemployment.
According to the federal government vision 20:2020 is a target to be one of the 20 largest economic Nations of the world. Therefore it is very imperative to look at how achievable vision 20:2020 is from the perspective of mass media. As a matter of fact mass media and vision 20:2020 are needed to be fully understood at ones before we processed in this research work.
The foregoing is the general content in which we must explain tentatively the issues involved in the prevalence of poverty in Nigeria. Why is it that a country like Nigeria, which is endowed with both vast natural and human resource remain in object poverty? Despite an age of oil boom and the existence of a nationwide network of poverty reduction institutions, Nigeria remain among the poorest nations of the world and poverty intensify among it people. Why is this so? On the basis of data and information gathered from secondary sources and documents, a number of issues are identified as being responsible for the prevalence of poverty in Nigeria. To fully understand this, we shall be checking the involvement of mass media in solving all these societal problems.
Mass media and broadcast media in general are a very important socializing agent. They are impersonal sources and they reach large and heterogeneous audience. The broadcast media is very educative and do not only transmit information and message but also provides pictures of government activities, to teach individuals public norms and values accepted by the society and also reinforce such norms and values.
At the inception of President Umaru Musa Yar ‘Adua presidential tenure, he instituted a seven (7) point agenda and a vision 20:2020 which is aimed at improving the worth of Nigerians among the frontline countries of the world in terms of economic development. The vision forecast the Nation by the year 2020, as one of the 20 largest economic countries of the world able to consolidate with its leadership role in Africa and establish itself as a significant players in the Global economic and political arena”.
Nigeria’s economic potential is well recognized, it is the biggest economy in the West African sub-region. Given the countries considerable resource endowment and cost location, there is potential for strong growth. Yet, Nigeria has realized little of this potential. Previous effort at planning and visioning were not sustained. The history of economic stagnation, declining welfare and social inability has undermined development for most of the past 30 years.
Various studies have shown a strong relationship between media development and economic growth.
Media can empower people, by giving them platform for diverse opinions, participating in government and engaging in collective work. Nigerian broadcast media actors have to be at the fare front of vision 20:2020 engaging and interacting with a wide a range of members of the public and groups.
Vision 20:2020 will only make meaning to Nigeria citizens if the media will provide much needed structure for effective communication, co-ordination and networking.
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
Poverty alleviation has become a global issue that is top the agenda of most government, Nigeria is not an exception, therefore, these is an urgent need for the country to formulate policies that will reduce that incidence of poverty in Nigeria. In view of this, the following are the objective of this research.
1.2.1 To ascertain the extent of poverty alleviation attained through the use of the broadcast media in achieving 2020:20
1.2.2 To evaluate the level of involvement of broadcast media in achieving the set vision.
1.2.3 To examine the cause of policy failure and the major role of the used of media in achieving any policy success.
1.3 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
No economic growth can be achieved without government putting in place well focused programme to reduce poverty through empowering it citizen and uplifting their lot. It is pertinent to note that most government, all over the globe especially in developing economies like Nigeria has embarked on laudable programmes aimed at alleviating poverty; in Nigeria the government has embarked on various programmes lately on the vision 20:2020.
The purpose of these research has been mounted on the role played by the broadcast media in achieving this set vision in seeing how the country can attain the prospect of been among the first 20 most advance countries of the world.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research has not gone beyond the scope and operation of some broadcast medium and the effect of their programming on the entire community toward the achievement of the set vision 20:2020.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Consequently, this research will be attempting to provide solution to the following key question that seem not clear about the importance and role of the broadcast media in achieving vision 20:2020.
- To what extent has government promoted and supported the broadcast media toward the attainment of vision 20:2020?
- To what extent can the broadcast media help in speeding up the achievement of the set vision?
- How important has the broadcast media be an active tool to the achievement of vision 20:2020?
- To what extent has the set vision succeeded through the usage of broadcast media?
1.6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The research will be conducted by administering questionnaire to the contacted media house and media conference centers to elicit the necessary information, responses will be received and analyze. Non-responses and questionnaire will be subsequently collated and analyzed, articulating the various efforts by their media practitioners toward attainment of vision 20:2020.
Data will be collected through primary sources and using simple statistical inference such as chi-square, the null hypothesis which will be further tested against the alternative hypothesis from which the basis for policy recommendation on the attainment of the set vision 20:2020 and reduction of poverty will be formed.
HYPOTHESIS HI: The rate of failure of the set vision 20:20:20 would be reduced if the media are allowed free and direct access to the actual frame work of the set vision. H2: Success of vision 20; 2020 would be enhanced if there is an intervention from
H3: Attainment of vision 20:20:20 would be easier if the broadcast media are empowered with duty of mobilization.
H4: More government policies would succeed if vision 20:2020 succeeded through the help of the media.
1.7 RESEARCH REPORT FORMAT
- Chapter 1 contains the introductory aspects of the main subject or topic.
- Chapter 2 will focused it attention on the literature review. Efforts of the past scholars and writers of relevant issues will be discussed and documented. The opinion of the report research will also be documented.
- Chapter 3 will entails the research methodology of the study. How the project will be carried out is detailed in this chapter.
- Chapter 4 of this research work focused the presentation and the analysis of data. The response through the administered questionnaires will be put down and the discussions that followed the responses. In this chapter, the chi-square test will be used to strictly demonstrate the indicator of poverty as adduced by the research.
- Chapter 5 which is the last chapter of the research work will focus on the summary of the whole research, the recommendation and conclusion. Also the reference that will be contacted to make the project a reality.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The role of the broadcast media in achieving vision 2020:20 is an elaborate theme. The broadcast media itself is up to taste, not to talk about the other element of role in achieving vision 2020:20. The broadcast media include Radio, Television and even this days the internet but due to constraint associated with timing, financial factors, resource available and the research itself shall be combining the three broadcast media entity as one.
1.9 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
Nigerian Economy: The Nigerian economy can structurally be classified broadly into four: production, general commerce, service and others.Production is made up of Agricultural manufacturing, mining and quarrying, and real estate and constructions.General commerce is make up of bill discounted, domestic trade export and imports. On the other hand, service include public utilities and transport and communication “others” are made up of credit and financial institutions governments, and miscellaneous (composed of personal and professional) (private) sectors.
Poverty: Poverty is a state or condition characterized, among many things by lack of material. Possession existing without the luxuries aids often the necessities of life being in a position to excite compassionate regard to pity. It can also be a state of being inferior in quality or insufficient in amount.
Broadcast Media: Broadcast media are medium of communication used to convey message to large and heterogeneous audience which are scatted about in far and near places. The broadcast media covers a wide spectrum of different communication method such as television, radio, newspaper, magazine and even the internet and any other material supplied by the media and press. The media also supplies lot of valuable information. E.g. speeches, document, interviews, advertisement, daily news, financial market and much more.
Vision 20:2020: Vision 20:20:20:is a dream by the Nigerian government led by late President Umar Musa Yar’Adua that by the year 2020, Nigeria will be one of the first top developed and most advance 20 largest economy.