VIEWER SHIP OF TELEVISION PROGRAMMES IN ENUGU STATE(CASE STUDY OF ENUGU SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT)
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This research work was carried out in order to find out what the populace of Enugu South thinks or feels about television programmes in Enugu State. The research also attempted to look into other peoples work related to the research topic.
During research, the people of Enugu South were used as the populace of study; questionnaires were the major instrument of study. Random sampling method was applied to obtain the potion of the population on whom the instruments were administered.
Responses were analyzed on percentage. Furthermore, the significant problems and question for this research were spelt out in order to help, uphold or reject certain assumption. The data collected from the questionnaires made it possible for the researcher to get the answers agitating his mind. It was noted that on human behaviour.
The study was able to find out actually what the populace of Enugu South think or feel about the positive or negative effect towards television programmes in Enugu state.
The research also made recommendations on what should be done to make our television content more result oriented and interesting.
I. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
This study centers on the viewership of television programmes by the populace of Enugu South local government area of Enugu state as the case study it has a double aimed. Firstly, it is in behavioural dispositions of the populace toward television programmes. One of the outstanding features of the media communication is composition of the audience. The audience of television is highly heterogeneous with members having several distinctive characteristics, different interest and they are scattered in all over the nation with different socio-economic strata.
Based on the heterogeneity of the audience, it is obvious that views differs among members of mass media, audience while some use a particular station programme others depend on the other.
Some may want to watch entertainment programmes while some might prefer thoughtful vital programmes like News, current affairs commentaries or documentaries depending on their likes. One of the plans in which an audience is active is though the use of selective exposure. It is the tendency of accepting to express yourself to communication that goes with your own value system, attitudes and viewpoint. The concept of self-selective exposure helps the active audience to control what he watches, to what he listens to and read; selective reading and listening are the function of selective exposure.
You can buy the newspaper of your choice. You can also watch the movie you like, you choose from many television programmes and radio, and if you find yourself watching something you do not like you can tune to another channel.
Different views have been presented in an attempt to determining why people watch television programmes. This can be identified with the following selective exposure which selective perception, selective retention and selective interpretation and the escapism.
- STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
Television has been acclaimed as one of the dependable means of communication, and the role of television is to inform, educate and entertain. Among other functions of television are socialization, integration, debate and discussion.
However, some stations fulfill these objectives or aims more than other stations. The extent, to which television programmes are watched, is partly a function of the disposition of the audience members towards such a station. The Enugu South populace constitutes a considerable segment of television audience in Nigeria. The need for audience analysis of their nature therefore cannot be over emphasized.
Television programmes producers try to attract a large audience or viewers, especially in competitive environment. The competition becomes high when there are more stations competing for the same audience. There s the tendency for viewers to select the type of station or programmes they watch. Most audience research findings suggest that economic factors and demographic factor influence television viewers, original disposition and some other factors have been identified as reasons for different viewing habits of television audience. Is this suggestion time for the viewing habit of television programmes by the populace of Enugu South? Which type of programme to the populace prefer entertainment news, documentary, talks, etc? Does the quality of the programmes affect their viewing habit?
Is the viewing habit of the populace due to time factor or does their occupation play some role? Is it because the television programmes are not national in coverage?
The dominant question for this viewership is what essentially informs of human needs and purpose sustained in mass media concerned with determining television programmes that have the widest viewership among the populace. The factors for the preference of one television programme over others will also be examined in the survey.
- what is the attitude of the people of Enugu South towards television programmes?
- Do resident in Enugu South Urban community pay more attention to a particular programmes on television?
- How would they want it to be produced educational, entertainment or informational?
- Who are the targeted audience literate or illiterate?
- How long would they wait the programme aired on television?
III. THE OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The aim of this study is to determine the effects of the viewership of television programmes in Enugu South local gov. area.
The first bold step was to select a manageable survey population in Idaw-River Layout of Enugu South.
Ozalla Street was thus selected. This area was chosen because it represents adequately, urban audience in Enugu state. Though the street (Ozalla) is just about three kilometers from the Idaw-river girls secondary school and five kilometers fro the Queen comprehensive secondary school. They are mainly civil servants, students, traders, and labourers. As list comprising the total streets that make up the entire Idaw-River layout was drawn and selected as a sampling frame contracted from there in view of carrying out a sound research work.
This was also, with a view to finding out whether the view ship of television programmes in Enugu south L.G.A. has succeeded in achieving its aims and objective.
H1: The people of Enugu South have positive attitude towards television programmes.
H0: The people of Enugu South have negative attitude towards television programmes.
H2: The resident in Enugu South pay more attention to a particular programmes on television.
H0: The resident in Enugu South pay less attention to a particular programmes on television.
H3: The people of Enugu South would want programmes to be produced educationally.
H0: The people of Enugu South would not want programmes to be produced educationally.
H4: The targeted audience of Enugu South is literate
H0: The targeted audience of Enugu South is not literate.
H5: The people of Enugu South would want produced programmes last as long as one hour.
H0: The people of Enugu South would not want produced programmes to last as long as one hour.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
It is important to realize that information can have impact, influence and effect on the society. Also to make people perform, accep0t or reject certain innovations, the medium through which such information comes must possess credibility. Furthermore, the audience of the mass media is divorced, anonymous, wide spread and comprises of various political, social, economic and interest groups of which the Enugu South populace are among.
Besides, since the credibility of the media is a function of the perception of their audience, and when the public does not believe the information they receive from the news media or think the media are omitting important facts, there will be increased reliance on informal sources of information and the consequences can be very serious.
Since the mass media and their audience are highly inter-related and interdependent every station should strive to commend a favourable attitude in the eyes of its audience. It is imperative also for every broadcaster to know who his audience is, his rating among them, what they think of him, his station and its programmes, whether the rating of his programmes and station are high or low. He can improve on his performance and this enhances his image and the credibility of his station.
The need of this study therefore is to find out the television viewing habits/attitudes of the Enugu South populace towards television programmes. The habits/attitudes survey is very critical in determining the effects of television programme on selected audience, because it is only after a subject has observed the effects of a phenomenon that the subject can form a reasonable attitude towards that phenomenon.
According to Parder (1974) “The sooner each new technology is studied the greater the chance of bringing to use the research results to influence policy in a meaningful way”.
From this, it can be deduced that it is necessary to examine the television viewing habits or attitudes of the populace since it is only when this is known that the station would be in a better position to plan and restructure its programmes to appeal both its enlightened and unenlightened public audience.
From the finding of the research other electronic media will see the need to restructure their programme in a way that it would generate positive responses from their audience. It is also hoped that this findings will serve as a stimulant for further investigation by interested professionals.
PURPOSE OF STUDY
The study aims towards inquiring and finding out what arouses the Enugu South populace-viewing attitude towards television programmes. Also to in identify what propels them to do and ignore other stations or programmes. It is also aimed at measuring the level of the populace interest in the vital contents of television programmes.
Television: It is a system of transmitting and receiving audio-visual broadcasting programmes through the airwaves.
Habit: Somebody’s way of doing things especially that which cannot easily be given up.
Attitude: A way of feeling thinking or behaviours among human beings.
Broadcasting: Sending out of information, ideal, opinion, etc through the airwave to the audience.
Viewing: It is the act of being able to watch and hear or trying to watch something.
Selective Exposure: It is the tendency of willing exposing yourself to communication that accord with your own value system, attitude and viewpoint.
Selective Perception: It is tending to see what you want to see in a message and reject a contradictory ones.
Selective Interpretation: Interpreting message according to pre-disposition and bias.
Selective Recalls: Trying to retain in your memory a message or aspect of message that appeals to you, and forget others and to recall such message or aspect when necessary.
Communication: Exchanging of information experience and ideas among people. Mass communication therefore is the process of transmitting information, ideas and attitudes to a relatively large and diversified audience simultaneously.