Arms Proliferation And Insecurity In Plateau State

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Arms Proliferation And Insecurity In Plateau State

Insecurity

abstract

This research work examines arms proliferation and insecurity in Plateau State. Particular emphasis was on sources, methods of SALWs flows, factors responsible for SALWs, implications of SALWs on security in Plateau State and the measures adopted by the Nigerian as well as the Plateau Governments to control SALWs proliferation into Nigeria and indeed the State.

Basically, the study revealed that in the
last one decades, the state has been particularly plagued by violent conflicts.
There have been inter-communal and intra-communal and ethnic conflicts,
ethno-religious conflicts, inter-regional tensions, religious riots, and
political conflicts. Nigeria and indeed Plateau State has become a huge market
for domestic, regional, and international arms dealers and syndicates; a major
destination of SALWs flows, and a centre of illicit trafficking.


With the government unable to provide security for its citizens in certain regions, many
have resulted to taking up arms and thus, driving the largest proliferation and
use of SALWs in Nigeria’s peacetime history. The findings of this study
estimates that the number of illicit SALWs in Nigeria has at least doubled
since the 2000-2003 estimates between one and three million to between three to
six million.

The demand for SALWs has risen astronomically in the last decade
and with a consistent domestic market and constant inflow, arms are widely and
easily available. With an increase in the arms-bearing groups and a rise in
armed conflict and violent criminality, major conflict points in the state have
extended. Legal SALWs have been diverted to illegal use, mainly through
leakages from unsecured official stockpiles of security agencies. Illicit craft
production in Nigeria is growing in sophistication and provides more affordable
arms.

There is massive illicit SALWs inflow through the maritime borders, from
Sahelian Africa through very porous northern borders and from West Africa
through the South-West borders. The findings of this study also shows that the
Proliferation of SALWs in Plateau State has far reaching implication for
farmer/herder conflict, sectarian violence and also the intractable Boko Haram
menace in the Northeast region of the country. Without effective controls or
methods of deterrence, the already high levels of SALWs proliferation in
Nigeria will continue to increase the rate of insecurity amongst citizens.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0     INTRODUCTION –        –         –         –          –           –            –          – 1   

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY – – – –1

1.2 STATEMENT OF  THE PROBLEM – – – –7

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY – – – -9

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY   –           –           –          –           -10

1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY         –          –           -10

1.6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY       –         –             –          –           -10

1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS –           –         –           -11

REFERENCES         –        –           –         –               –           –            -14

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.1. INTRODUCTION   –         –           –          –        –            –           –     – 16

2.2 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK    –         –         –           –           –     – 16

2.2.1 Concept of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW)     –           –     – 16

2.2.2 Concept of Arms Proliferation         –          –         –          –           –     – 21

2.2.3 Concept of Insecurity              –        –          –         –          –           –     – 27

2.3 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK    –          –          –          –          –     – 30

2.4 EMPIRICAL REVIEW      –             –           –          –          –          –     – 34

REFERENCES      –           –               –             –           –           –         – 41

CHAPTER THREE

HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF ARMS PROLIFERATION AND INSECURITY IN PLATEAU STATE

3.0 INTRODUCTION     –      –       –         –           –             –            –         – 45

3.1 HISTORY OF PLATEAU STATE     –           –              –           –          – 45

3.2 OVERVIEW OF ETHNO-RELIGIOUS AND POLITICAL CRISES IN PLATEAU STATE     –             –            –        –            –            –         – 47

3.3 ARMED GROUPS AND ETHNIC VIOLENCE IN PLATEAU STATE -56

3.4 SMALL ARMS AVAILABILITY AND SOURCES IN PLATEAU STATE -60

3.5 STATE OF EMERGENCY AND DISARMAMENT IN PLATEAU STATE -62

3.6 BRIEF HISTORY OF SALWS IN NIGERIA –     –        –       –       –         – 64

3.6.1 Sources of Illicit SALWin Nigeria   –              –     –        –       –       –         – 65

3.7 MOTIVATION FOR SALW POSSESSION AND PROLIFERATION IN NIGERIA –     –      –       –         –        –          –         –         –        –         –       – 71

REFERENCES –     –      –         –        –          –         –        –        –          –        – 75

CHAPTER FOUR

ARMS PROLIFERATION AND INSECURITY IN PLATEAU STATE

4.0 INTRODUCTION –     –         –       –        –         –         –          –        –      –      – 78

4.1 THE SOURCES OF ARMS PROLIFERATION IN PLATEAU STATE –   – 78

4.2 THE RATIONALE FOR ARMS PROLIFERATION AND INSECURITY IN PLATEAU STATE –      –        –       –        –        –        –      –         –         –     -81

4.2.1 Geographical and Historical Outline –       –        –        –      –         –         –      -81

4.2.2 Religious and Ethnic Politics –          –       –        –        –       –        –          –    – 84

4.2.3 Citizenship and Indigeneity –             –      –        –         –       –        –          –     – 87

4.3 THE EFFECT OF ARMS PROLIFERATION ON SECURITY IN PLATEAU STATE –       –          –         –      –        –      –        –         –       –        –         –      92

4.4 WHAT THE PLATEAU STATE GOVERNMENT HAS DONE TO CONTROL THE PROLIFERATION OF SMALL ARMS AND LIGHT WEAPONS IN THE STATE –           –        –       –         –        –        –          – 95

REFERENCES –           –                    –         –         –         –        –       –   103

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 SUMMARY –      –     –         –          –         –         –          –         – -106

5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS     –           –         –        –           –         –           – 108

5.3 CONCLUSION –                 –           –         –         –          –         –            – 110

BIBILIOGRAPHY –        –           –         –          –          –         –            -114

 

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