THE IMPACT OF PICTURE ON NEWS CREDIBILITY(A STUDY OF MEDIA AUDIENCE IN ENUGU METROPOLIS)
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This project is basically an unrelated attempt to unravel what pictures entails and its role to news credibility using Enugu metropolis as a case study. The main aim is to unveil the impact it creates in ensuring news credibility. This will in turn clear the doubt people maintain. On its significance towards news credibility. The method adopted for collecting data for this research was the survey method and also the method of analysis was percentages form. Based on the analysis, the result shared that picture guarantees better understanding of news. This entails that picture is inevitable in making news attractive and interesting. From the above findings, the recommendation made sticks to creating awareness of what picture and its role to news presentation.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problems
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Research Questions
1.6 Research Hypothesis
1.7 Theoretical Framework
1.8 Definition of Terms
1.9 Limitation of the study
2.1 Sources of Literature
2.2 Review on Pictures and News Credibility
2.3 The Review
3.0 Research Design and Methodology
3.1 Research Methods
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Population and Sample
3.4 Research Sample and Sampling Techniques
3.5 Measuring Instrument
3.6 Validity and Reliability of Instrument
3.7 Administration of Instrument
3.8 Method of Data Analysis
4.0 Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
4.1 Introduction of Data Analysis
4.2 Test of Hypothesis
4.3 Discussion of Findings
5.0 Summary of Findings , Recommendation and Conclusion
5.1 Summary of Findings
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Whenever we talk about photojournalism, we all know is about telling the news in picture “communication” says Philip Geraci, “Began with pictures these brings us to the history of how it all started (telling news in picture). The idea of telling news in picture dates back to the wall carving of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamian. Even the Japanese and Chinese alphabet of today are traced to the combination and manipulation of the mental image eminent in picture concepts (Rothstain 1977, page 16).
However, from the foregoing, it will not be surprising to say that early man made it possible for telling news in predates written language and may even have predated spoken languages (Geraci, 1978, Page 13). The idea of drawing is said to be a primary concept of picture making. In this regards, the story of photojournalism is based on how the art of picture representation and sketches grow into the flourishing communication genre. In other word, the discovery of photography which date back in 1839 through the efforts of Lonis Daguerre, joseph Niepace and William Talbot add much credence to the flourish of photojournalism.
According to Rothstein (1977 page 16) the critical discovery pared the way for photojournalism. These were the development of practical functional method that put into the cameras of negative form which positive print could be made, the introduction of photography along with typeset word.
These findings broaden the horizon and potentialities of communication with picture, (Nnaye Lugo Okorie, Historical perspective of photojournalism, 1995). A very significance step in the ascendance of photojournalism was the discovery of George Eastman, a dry plate mater Rochester, New York, Popularly known as Eastman Kodak, His invention in 1888 simplified the process of photographing and this made photo journalist more attractive for news hold. A man known as Roger fenton is said to be the greatest of all time in telling news in picture. This was in his coverage of the main war in 1855. Fenton covered the war using five cameras, seven hundred glasses plates, four houses and wagon which served as darkroom. He came back from the war with more than three hundred negative samples of which had to be printed later in illustrated London news (Geraci,1978,pg 18).
Subsequently, Matthew Brady’s Portrait of Abraham. Another history was made during the Spanish civil war of 1935 Robert Capa a during and irrepressible photojournalist followed the actions in a battle field for twenty years recording humanity, the difficulties pain and heart beat of war. Capa was killed in 1954 by a land mine while covering the war in Indochina. Thus, on one of his award winning photograph is his recording of the particular moment of death in 1936 as a cyclist Soldiers falls near Cordoba, Spain, when shot on head by a Falgangist, (Okoro, 1995).
Back home in Nigeria, using picture in telling news has its root in the colonial period. It followed advent of news preparing in Nigeria, newspaper led to improved pays use of catchy illustration.
The socio-political environment of Nigeria help to spear head the development of photojournalism. The inseparability of polities and photography is a factor that goes far back in line. The nationalist who were fighting for independence found newspaper a read weapon for castigating the colonial administration. The problem then was that these publications had ordinary photographs who had little or no knowledge of what is news worthy. The picture they produce were essentially aware photographs which usually affect the credibility of news they illustrate.
However, the 1970’s and upward witnessed a marked improvement in both photo content and style. The emergence of paper like concord, vanguard etc, has since revolutionalize Nigeria photojournalism both in story points. This made the editors to employ a good press photographer who most have an eye for news in the same way a reporter must have a nose for a good story. With this, photographs are made to be more news oriented which better represent the news they illustrate, thereby enhancing the news credibility, attracting and compelling the readers to read the story and also add aesthetic mood to the newspaper.
For example, in 1989, Segun Olokitan of Concord newspaper descended on the women and Maidens of Kanbari with his Camera and came up with short portraying the “Nudity” of Nigeria’s naked tribe. The shorts which were used in making up dele Momodit feature titled “In the year of 20th century, we still have daughters of Eve who are hankering for a return to the Garden of Eden.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The impact of picture and illustration on news credibility has been doubted by many people who are ignorant of what photojournalism can do to news presentation and acceptance. Nevertheless, the debate has lingered for long among profusion street men and women, students of higher learning etc. yet mass media such as newspaper and magazine continues to reap the benefit of picture through its attraction of the readers to read the story, beatification of its pages identification of the publication believability of the news story and enhancing the organization purse by increasing the sale of publication.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY.
1. To know what photojournalism is all about.
2. To know how it helps in adding credibility to news stories.
3. To find a lasting solution to some of the doubts expressed by people on impact of picture on news story.
4. The research work is also basically to encourage the people to appreciate picture that best illustrate news.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study was embarked upon so that people will understand and appreciate the impact of picture on ensuring news worthiness. In other words, it will help them know its effect on news credibility. This study shows clearly the benefits in photojournalism to our researchers, professional. In the field, street men and women and to students of mass communication. This will also help in the encouragement of the use of picture and illustration in magazine pages since its usage prove pragmatic on readers. This in other words, serve as a guide to editors who place any kind of picture on their news paper and magazine pages.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. Do picture perform any role in newspaper story?
2. Does the practice of using picture in Nigeria newspaper guarantee better understanding of message?
3. Is the use of picture to illustrate news stories more of entertainment than information?
4. Is there means of ensuring news credibility apart from photo usage?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Hi: Pictures play significant role in ensuring news
Ho: Pictures does not play significant role in ensuring
H2: The practice of photojournalism in Nigeria newspaper
guarantee better understanding of the message.
Ho: The practice of photojournalism in Nigeria newspaper
does not guarantee better understanding of the message.
H3: the use of picture to illustrate news stories is more of
entertainment than information.
H0: The use of picture to illustrate news stories is not
more of entertainment than information.
H4: There are other means of ensuring news credibility
apart from photo usage.
H4: There are no other means of ensuring news
credibility apart from photo usage.
1.7 THEORETICAL FRAME WORK (DISCUSS)
The impact of picture on news credibility is assumed that picture play a key role in our news today in Nigeria. Looking at the agenda setting theory of the mass media, which stated that the media not only informs us but also influences us as what is important to know. The agenda setting theory is very useful because it explains in practice terms why people react the way they do. This is why, according to Kunczik 1988.32 sees agenda setting as the opportunity for agenda setting by the media because enhancing when the value structure of a society is in a state of flux. In line to that Mc Combs and Show 1972:36 refer agenda setting as the power of news organization to influence what people think about which comes from their ability to choose the stories that will gain media attention.
In junction to that, Bernard Cohen (1963:13) sees agenda setting as the press been significant more than a purveyor of information and opinion. It my not be successful much of the time this that the world looks different to people depending not only on their personal interest, but on the map that draw for them by the writer, editors and publishers of the paper they read.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS.
Topic: Picture and news credibility the definition is
Picture: is defined as any image captured either by
camera photograph or painting/drawing.
News: this is a timely report of event or happening that
hold interest of large number of audience .
Credibility: this is an ability to believe.
NewsCredibility: This is perception of news by the readers.
Pictures has really added colour to news presentation.
In fact, this can clearly show in the demand of professional in the art of photojournalism, that is certain standards of learning and expectation is now required to be qualified as photojournalist.
Picture and picture that best tell the story on the page of newspaper. In fact, it is not exaggeration to say that picture is the backbone of news presentation and writing.