The Isolation And Identification Of Nematode Affecting Tomatoes Grown In Some Selected Area Of River Kaduna In Kaduna State
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Four (4) sites or area were sampled, using the”simple random sampling technique” to make up the study group namely; Malali, Ungwan Rimi, Stadium round about, Kawo for soil or root-not nematodes from tomatoes plant. Ten (10) plants uprooted randomly at each site(s) visited making a total of forty (40) plants were isolation and identification of nematodes was done at the Department of Crop Protection, Institute of Agricultural Research (I.A.R.) Ahmadu Bello University Zaria base on movement action, tail, shape and a tutorial book. Result obtained shared occurrence of nematodes as follows; Malali, 342; Ungwan Rimi 40; Stadium Round About, 66; Kawo, 261; making a total of 708 nematodes. Of this number, Crieonemoides accounted for 7(0.990Co); Helicotylenchus 544 (76.840Co); Meloidogyne larva 62 (8.760Co); Pratylenchus 19 (2-680Co); Rotylenchus 64 (9.040Co) and Tylenchus 12 (1.690Co). the researcher; considering the negative effect of these on the yield/production of tomatoes, suggests/profers/and also, when transplanting, intercropping.
Nematodes are tiny, thread-like worms measuring 0.0 15 inch to 0.187 inch in length. They are either free living parasitic or saprophytic, identified on the basis of shapes, size and special structures. The females become swollen and flask-shaped as a result of accumulation of eggs with the anus virtually terminal in position, while the males are vermiform (Sherf and Macnah, 1986; Chitwood, 1949; Taylor and Sasser, 1978; Idowu, 1979 and Idowu, 1983)
Nematodes are known for causing destructive diseases of crops as they have a wide range of feeding habit, constitute about 80% of all multicellular animals, attacking nearly every crop that is grown in the field and as a result crop yields is greatly affected reducing quantity and quality of crops on field, orchard, home garden and green houses (Mai, 1985; Symth, 1994; Sasser, 1952). Among the favoured host in Nigeria as a whole include tomato, yam, tobacco, papaw, citrus and sweet potato (Sasser, 1954).
Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) belongs to the family Solanaceae and subilass polypetalae of the dicotyledenous group of plants. Tomato is a slight modification of tomato the name used by the Indians of Mexico, who have grown the plant for food since prehistoric times. Other names reported by early European explorers were tomato, tumatle and tomatas, probably variants of Indian words (Wener, 2004).
Tomato is a variable annual herb of 0.2-0.7m height and fruit which is grown for its fleshy berry, red or yellow when ripe containing vitamin A and C. It can be grown at sea level but usually does better at high altitude and when the harvest is marketed at high effectively, the farmer will have high income. For example, in Taiwan, fresh tomatoes grown whether during the winter or summer are more profitable than rice (Villareal, 1980). Tomato fruit is used as raw material in some cases it is cooked and made into soups, sauce, juice, ketchup, paste puree or powder, canned and used unripe in chutneys. The main production areas are in the USA, Italy and Mexico. Tomato production provides employment and business opportunities for manufacturing of fertilizers, pesticides, sprays, propping containers and for dealer in seed farm implement.
Tomato cultivation is usually more restricted by diseases than by pest in most location, but in some places pest are problems. Over recent years there has been small land holder tomato cultivation in part of Africa, but as a good and as a joint disease nematode complex which has build up partly owing to the lack of crop rotation.