Susceptibilities Of Salmonella Typhi And Other Bacterial Pathogens To Antibiotics And Hot Aqueous Extract Of Hibiscus Sabdariffa

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Susceptibilities Of Salmonella Typhi And Other Bacterial Pathogens To Antibiotics And Hot Aqueous Extract Of Hibiscus Sabdariffa 

Hibiscus Sabdariffa

ABSTRACT

The susceptibilities of Salmonella typhi and other pathogens to antibiotics and hot aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa were investigated using agar diffusion and agar well diffusion methods respectively. Salmonella typhi was sensitive to ampicillin, cetriaxone, ciprofloxacin, gentamycin of ofloxacin and perfloxacin. Nitrofurantoin, ampicillin, clarithomycin and augumentin are resistant. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, and Staphylococcus aureus were sensitive to 50%, 70% and 60% of the antibiotics respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was resistant to all antibiotics.

 Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (0.6g in 6ml of sterile distilled water) was active against S. typhi at concentrations of 100mg/ml, 50mg/ml and 25mg/ml (inhibitions zone diameter IZDs = 23mm, 20mm and 16mm respectively). Staphylococcus aureus was susceptible to 100mg/ml, 50mg/ml, 25mg/ml and 12.5mg/ml of the extract with IZDs of 29mm, 18mm, 17mm and 14mm respectively. Klebsiella spp was susceptible to concentrations of 25mg/ml and 12.5mg/ml of the extract with IZDs of 15mm and 10mm respectively. Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were resistant to all the concentrations of H. sabdariffa extract. It is therefore imperative to note that the use of medicinal plants is recommended to the Government and Industry.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Long before mankind discovered the existence of microbes, the idea that plants have some healing potentials, i.e. that they contain what we will currently characterize as antimicrobial principle was well accepted (Doughari, mahmood & Tyoyina, 2011). In whatever manner early man gained his knowledge of the curative powers of plants, one must assume that the was able thereafter to recognize the plant, since the detailed flora available today, were not in existence then (Sofowora, 2008). The use of higher plants and their extracts to treat infectious diseases is an age old practice in traditional African medicine (Onyeagba, ugbogu, Okeke & Iroakasi, 2004).

Traditional medicine practice has been known for centuries in many parts of the world (Sofowora, 1984). It is however observed that these practices vary from one country to another (Onyeagba, ugbogu, Okeke & Iroakasi 2004). Nature has been a source of medicinal agents for thousands of years. The use of herbs is the most ancient approach to healing known (Apata, 1979)

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