The Impact Of Solid Wastes In Urban Centres In Nigeria

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THE IMPACT OF SOLID WASTES IN URBAN CENTRES IN NIGERIA

Solid Wastes

ABSTRACT

Nigeria’s major urban centres are today grappling with the problems caused by mounting heaps of solid wastes from their environments. This paper undertakes a study of the solid waste build up phenomenon with a view toward finding ameliorative measures that would help reduce their negative effects on urban beautification and sanitation. And hopefully, to provide insights into easing, reducing, minimizing and avoiding the evolving solid, waste encroachment of city streets and roads, particularly in areas of uncontrolled growth and development typifying cities in Nigeria .

INTRODUCTION

Solid wastes comprise all the wastes arising from human and animal activities that are normally solid, discarded as useless or unwanted. Also included are by- products of process lines or materials that may be required by law to be disposed of (Okecha 2000). Solid waste can be classified in a number of ways, on the basis of sources, environmental risks, utility and physical property. On the basis of source, solid wastes are again classified as: Municipal Solid Wastes, Industrial Solid Wastes and Agricultural Solid Wastes. Nigeria’s major urban centres are today fighting to clear mounting heaps of solid waste from their environments. These strategic centres of beauty, peace and security are being overtaken by the messy nature of over flowing dumps unattended heaps of solid wastes emanating from household or domestic or kitchen sources, markets, shopping and business centres. Solid Waste Landfills

City officials appear unable to combat unlawful and haphazard dumping of hazardous commercial and industrial wastes which are a clear violation of the clean Air and Health Edicts in our environmental sanitation laws, rules and regulation. Refuse generation and its likely effects on the health, quality of environment and the urban landscape have become burning national issues in Nigeria today. All stakeholders concern with the safety and the beautification of our environment have come to realise the negative consequences of uncleared solid human wastes found in residential neighbourhoods, markets, schools, and central business districts in our cities. Urban Centres

These solid wastes have become recurring features in our urban environment. It is no longer in doubt that our cities are inundated with the challenges of uncleared solid wastes. As a result, urban residents are often confronted with the hazardous impact to their collective health and safety. The hue and cry over the health consequences of exposed and fermenting rubbish have not been quantified, although their impact is noticeable, especially in times of epidemic in congested activity nucleicivic centres, CBDS, neigbhourhoods, etc. A United Nations Report (August 2004) noted with regret that while developing countries are improving access to clean drinking water they are falling behind on sanitation goals. At one of its summit in 2000 (Uwaegbelun 2004) revealed that The World Health Organization- (WHO 2004) and United Nations International Children Education Fund- (UNICEF 2004) joint report in August 2004 that: “about 2.4 billion people will likely face the risk of needless disease and death by the target of 2015 because of bad sanitation”. The report also noted that bad sanitation – decaying or non-existent sewage system and toilets- fuels the spread of diseases like cholera and basic illness like diarrhea, which kills a child every 21 seconds. The hardest hit by bad sanitation is rural poor and residents of slum areas in fast-growing cities, mostly in Africa and Asia . Solid Waste Landfills

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page
Certification                                                                                                i 
Dedication                                                                                        ii
Acknowledgement                                                                            iii
Abstract                                                                                      iv
Chapter One: 
1.0        Introduction                                                                        1
1.1        Background Information                                                     1
1.2        Problem Statement                                                              6
1.3         Research Objectives                                                             7
1.4       Hypothesis                                                                          8
1.5        Significance of the Study                                                     9
1.6        Scope of the Study                                                             10
Chapter Two: 
2.0        Literature Review

Chapter Three: 
3.0     Research Methodology                                         30
3.1     Description of the Study Area                             30
3.2    Research Design                                                            30
3.3  Method of Data Collection                                            31
3.4  Data Limitation                                                             31
3.5  Method of Data Analysis                                               32
3.5.1                   Summative Approaches                                       32
3.5.2         Simple Percentage                                                33
3.5.3         Incremental Averages                                           34

3.6            Test of Hypothesis                                               34
Chapter Four
4.0 Presentation of Data, Analysis of Data and Discussion of Findings                                              36
4.1  Data Presentation                                                          37
4.2  Data Analysis                                                                39
4.3  Discussion of Findings                                         41
4.4   Test of Hypothesis                                                         45
Chapter Five: 
5.0  Summary    of      Findings Conclusion and
Recommendation                                                47
5.1  Summary of Findings                                                     47
5.2  Conclusion                                                           48
5.3  Recommendation

The Impact Of Solid Wastes In Urban Centres In Nigeria

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