Effects Of Three Selected Spices: Alligator Pepper, Cloves And Ginger On The Quality Attributes Of Kunun-Zaki

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EFFECTS OF THREE SELECTED SPICES: ALLIGATOR PEPPER, CLOVES AND GINGER ON THE QUALITY ATTRIBUTES OF KUNUN-ZAKI

ABSTRACT
Additives used in food processing can be natural or synthetic in nature. The use of natural additives in food processing has been encouraged due to the health hazards, non-nutritiveness and high cost usually associated with their synthetic counterparts. Hence, this research work is aimed at determining the effects of three selected natural additives-spices (alligator pepper, cloves and ginger) on the quality attributes of kunun-zaki in order to encourage the use of natural additives and to establish their best concentrations for the production of kunnu –zaki. Kunun-zaki samples of different concentrations of spices: Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and Alligator pepper (Aframumom danielli) at 0% (control), 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0% and 2.5% of each spice were produced. Samples were stored at room (RT) and refrigerated temperature (ReT) respectively. Chemical, mineral (heavy metals), pesticide residues, microbiological and sensory evaluations were carried out on the samples for four storage days using standard methods.  All the spices had various effects on the quality of Kunu-zaki produced. For the pH, specify gravity and sucrose, gradual decrease in values was observed during the first two storage days (ranging from 3.32-5.48 (RT); 6.00 -7.71(ReT); 1.0110-1.0255(RT), 2.5-1.0255 (ReT) and 0.20 – 0.15(RT), 0.77- 0.85 (ReT) respectively followed by increase in the values for the remaining storage days. For the titratable acidity, volatile acidity and free fatty acids, gradual increase in the values were observed (ranging from 0.51- 1.29(RT); 1.37 -1.40 (ReT) and 0.12 – 0.92 (RT); 0.12- 0.17 (ReT), 0.01-0.14(RT); 0.01-0.04(ReT) respectively. The control samples showed a higher rate of decrease and increase in each case. Chemically, 2.0% treated samples stored at refrigerated temperature gave better results (keep longer) than the other concentrations stored at room temperature. For the minerals (heavy metals): Lead, cadmium and Chromium were not detected but Zinc had values of 0.001 for the whole samples. Pesticide residues:  Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), Lindane, Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane(DDT), Aldrin, Heptachlor, Endrin, Heptachlor Epoxide and Chlorodane ) though present in minute quantity, were found to decrease as the concentration of spices increased, with 2% and 2.5% being most effective on the average. The three spices were able to effectively control the microbial growth for the first three days, while visible growth were observed for the other days in samples stored at RT and less with the samples stored at ReT. Sensory evaluations showed that there were no significant difference in colour, taste and flavour with the samples but the mean values showed that sample treated at 1.5%, 2.0% and 2.5% were generally accepted with 2.0 % concentration mostly acceptable. Kunun-zaki produced at 2% concentration of the spices and stored at refrigerated temperature maintained the chemical constituents of the product and exhibits the neutralization of the heavy metals. There was also reduction of pesticide residues and suppression of microbial growth. Therefore, it can be concluded that kunun- zaki be produced at 2% concentration of these spices and be store at refrigerated temperature.

TABLE OF CONTENT
TITLE PAGE
CERTIFICATION
DEDICATION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
ABSTRACT
TABLES OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF APPENDIX

CHAPTER ONE    
1.0       INTRODUCTION                                                                                        1
1.1       Background                                                                                                    1
1.2       Justification                                                                                                     4
1.3       Aim and Objectives                                                                                        4

CHAPTER TWO
2.0       LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Beverages                                                                                                        6
2.1.1    Composition of Beverages                                                                  7
2..1.2   Utilization of Beverages                                                                     8
2.2       Types of Beverages                                                                                         9
2.2.1    Carbonated non-alcoholic Beverages                                                 9
2.2.2    Non-carbonated, non-alcholic Beverages                                           9
2.2.3    Alcholic Beverages                                                                             9
2.2.5    Kunun                                                                                                             10
2.2.6    Types of Kunun                                                                                  10
2.2.6.1 Kunun Gyada                                                                                     10
2.2.6.2 Kunun Akamu                                                                        11
2.2.6.3 Kunun Aya                                                                             11
2.2.6.4 Kunun Tsamiya                                                                       11
2.2.6.5 Kunun Tsir                                                                              11
2.2.6.5 Kunun zaki                                                                              12
2.2.6.6.1          Utilization of kunun-zaki                                12
2.2.6.6.2          Composition of kunun-zaki                            12
2.2.7    Sorghum                                                                                              12
2.2.7.1 Composition of Sorghum Grain                                              13
2.2.7.2 Utilization of Sorghum Grain                                                 15
2.2.8    Millet                                                                                                   15
2.2.8.1 Composition of millet (Pebbisetum typhodeum)                     16
2.3       Processing of Kunun-zaki                                                                               18
2.4       Food Additives                                                                                               21
2.4.1    Food Preservatives                                                                              21
2.4.2    Chemical Preservatives and Criticisms                                               21
2.4.3    Nutraceuticals                                                                                     22
2.5       Spices and Herbs                                                                                            22
2.5.1    Alligator pepper (Aframomum danielli)                                              24
2.5.2    Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum)                                                          24
2.5.3    Black pepper (Piper guineense)                                                          27
2.5.4    Ginger (Zingiber officinale)                                                                 28

2.6       Application of Spices in Food beverages Production                                     31
2.6.1    Effects of Adanielli on Kunun-zaki                                                   31
2.6.2    Effect of A. denielli on carrot juice                                                    31

CHAPTER THREE
3.0       MATERAILS AND METHODS                                                                32
3.1       Materials                                                                                                         32
3.2       Methods                                                                                                          32
3.2.1    Preparation of Spices                                                                          32
3.2.2    Preparation of Extract                                                                         32
3.2.3    Production of kunun-zaki                                                                   34
3.2.4    Treatment of kunun-zaki with the Cold Extracts of Spices               34
3.3       Analyses                                                                                                          35
3.3.1    Chemical Analysis                                                                              35
3.3.1.1 pH                                                                                           35
3.3.1.2 Titratable Acidity                                                                    35
3.3.1.3 Specify Gravity                                                                       35
3.3.1.4 Sugar (Sucrose)                                                                       35
3.3.2    Minerals                                                                                              36
3.3.3    Pesticides Residue Determination                                                      37
3.3.4    Microbial Analysis                                                                              37
3.3.4.1 Total Viable Count                                                                 37
3.3.4.2 Coliform Count                                                                       38
3.3.4.3 Salmonella                                                                               38
3.3.5    Sensory Analysis                                                                                 38

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0       RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1a     Effect of Cloves (Syzgium aromaticum) Addition on the pH of
kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature                           39
4.1b     Effect of Cloves ((Syzgium aromaticum) Addition on the Specific
Gravity of Kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature        40
4.1c     Effect of Cloves ((Syzgium aromaticum) Addition on the Sucrose Level
of Kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature                     41
4.1d     Effect of Cloves ((Syzgium aromaticum) Addition on the Titratable
Acidity of Kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature        42
4.1e     Effect of Cloves ((Syzgium aromaticum) Addition on the Volatile
Acidity of Kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature        42
4.2a     Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Additions on the pH of
kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature                           49
4.2b     Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Additions on the Specify Gravity
of Kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature                     49
4.2c     Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Additions on the Sugar Level of
kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature                           50
4.2d     Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Additions on the Titratale Acidity
of Kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature                     50
4.2e     Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Additions on the Volatile Acidity
of Kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature                     51
4.3a     Effect of Alligator Pepper (Afrmumom danielli) Additions on the pH
of Kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature                     57
4.3b     Effect of Alligator Pepper (Afrmumom danielli) Additions on the Specific Gravity of Kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature             57
4.3c     Effect of Alligator Pepper (Afrmumom danielli) Additions on the
Sugar Level of Kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature 57
4.3d     Effect of Alligator Pepper (Afrmumom danielli) Additions on the Titratable
of Kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature                     58
4.3e     Effect of Alligator Pepper (Afrmumom danielli) Additions on the Volatile Acidity of Kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature 58
4.4       Effect of the Spices on Microbial Population                                                 64
4.5       Efect of the Spcies on Some Heavy Metals in Kunun-zaki                            71
4.6       Some Pesticides residues in Kunun-zaki                                                        74
4.7       Effect of the Spices (Cloves, Ginger and Alligator Pepper) on Sensory Characteristics of Kunun-zaki                                                                               80

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0       CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION                                        83
5.1       Conclusion                                                                                                      83
5.2       Recommendation                                                                                            83
References                                                                                                                  84
Appendix                                                                                                                    90                                           

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure                                                                                                             Page
2.1       Flow chart for traditional processing of kunun-zaki                           19
2.2       Flow chart for Improved Kunun-zaki production process                 20
3.1       Flow chart for production of spcies extract                                        33

LIST OF TABLES
Tables                                                                                                                    Pages
2.1       Typical Composition of Sorghum Grain                                                         14
2.2       Typical Chemical Composition for Millet Grain                                             17
4.1a     Effect of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) addition on the
pH of Kunun-zaki stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature                44
4.1b     Effect of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) addition on the Specific
Gravity of Kunun-zaki stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature         45
4.1c     Effect of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) addition on the Sucrose
level of Kunun-zaki stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature                         46
4.1d     Effect of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) addition on the Total
Titrale of Kunun-zaki stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature           47
4.1e     Effect of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) addition on the Volatile
Acidity of Kunun-zaki stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature         48
4.2a.    Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) addition on the pH of kunun-zaki
stored at Room Refrigerated Temperature                                                     52
4.2b     Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) addition on the Specific
Gravity of kunun-zaki stored at Room Refrigerated Temperature                 53
4.2c.    Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) addition on the Sucrose
of kunun-zaki stored at Room Refrigerated Temperature                              54
4.2d     Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) addition on the Total
Titratable of kunun-zaki stored at Room Refrigerated Temperature              55
4.2e     Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) addition on the Volatile
Acidity of kunun-zaki stored at Room Refrigerated Temperature                 56
4.3a     Effect of Alligator pepper (A.danielli) addition on the pH of
kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature                           59
4.3b     Effect of Alligator pepper (A.danielli) addition on the Specific Gravity
of kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature                      60
4.3c     Effect of Alligator pepper (A.danielli) addition on the Sucrose level
of kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature                      61
4.3d     Effect of Alligator pepper (A.danielli) addition on the Total Titratable
of kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature                     62
4.3e     Effect of Alligator pepper (A.danielli) addition on the Volatile Acidity
of kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature                     63
4.4a     Effect of Cloves in the Microbial Population Stored at Room Temperature             65
4.4b     Efect of Cloves in the Microbial Population Stored at Refrigerated
Temperature                                                                                                    66
4.4c     Effect of Ginger on the Microbial Population Stored at Room Temperature 67
4.4d     Effect of Ginger in the Microbial Population Stored at Refrigerated
Temperature                                                                                                    68
4.4e     Effect of Alligator in the Microbial Population Stored at Room
Temperature                                                                                                    69
4.4f      Effect of Alligator in the Microbial Population Stored at
Refrigerated Temperature                                                                               70
4.5a     Permissibles Levels of Metallic Contaminnats in kunun-zaki                         72
4.5b     Effect of the Spices on some heavy Metals in Kunun-zaki Samples              73
4.6a     Effects of Pesticide Residue in Kunun-zaki                                                   77
4.6b     Maximum Pesticide Residue Limit for Cereals                                              78
4.6c     Maximum Pesticide residue Limit for Drinking Water                                  79
4.7a     Effect of the Spices (Cloves, Ginger and Alligator Pepper)
on Sensory characteristics of kunun-zaki                                                        81

LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix                                                                                                                 Page
4.1a     Effect of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) Addition on the
pH of Kunun-zaki Stored at Room Temperature                                           90
4.1b     Effect of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) Addition on the
pH of Kunun-zaki Stored at Refrigerated Temperature                                 90
4.1c     Effect of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) Addition on the
Specific Gravity of Kunun-zaki Stored at Room Temperature                      91
4.1d     Effect of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) Addition on the
Specific Gravity of Kunun-zaki Stored at Refrigerated Temperature            91
4.1e     Effect of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) Addition on the
Sugar Level of Kunun-zaki Stored at Room Temperature                             92
4.1f      Effect of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) Addition on the
Sugar Level of Kunun-zaki Stored at Refrigerated Temperature                   92
4.1g     Effect of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) Addition on the Total
Titratale Acidity (TTA) of Kunun-zaki Stored at Room Temperature           93
4.1h.    Effect of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) Addition on the Total
Titratale Acidity (TTA) of Kunun-zaki Stored at Refrigerated
Temperature                                                                                                    93
4.1i      Effect of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) Addition on the Volatile
Acidity (VA) of Kunun-zaki Stored at Room Temperature                           94
4.1j      Effect of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) Addition on the Volatile
Acidity (VA) of Kunun-zaki Stored at Refrigerated Temperature                94
4.2a     Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Addition on the pH of
kunun-zaki Stored at Room Temperature                                                       95
4.2b     Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Addition on the pH of
kunun-zaki Stored at Refrigerated Temperature                                            95
4.2c     Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Addition on the Specific Gravity
of kunun-zaki Stored at Room Temperature                                                  96
4.2d     Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Addition on the Specific Gravity
of kunun-zaki Stored at Refrigerated Temperature                                        96
4.2e     Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Addition on the Sugar Level of
kunun-zaki Stored at Room Temperature                                                       97
4.2f      Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Addition on the Sugar Level of
kunun-zaki Stored at Refrigerated Temperature                                            97
4.2g     Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Addition on the Titratable Acidity
of kunun-zaki Stored at Room Temperature                                                  98
4.2h     Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Addition on the Titratable Acidity
of kunun-zaki Stored at Refrigerated Temperature                                        98
4.2i      Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Addition on the Volatile Acidity
(VA) of kunun-zaki Stored at Room Temperature                                        99
4.2j      Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Addition on the Volatile Acidity
(VA) of kunun-zaki Stored at Refrigerated Temperature                             99
4.3a     Effect of Alligator Pepper (A.danielli) Addition on the pH of
kunun-zaki Stored at Room Temperature                                                       100
4.3b     Effect of Alligator Pepper (A.danielli) Addition on the pH of
kunun-zaki Stored at Refrigerated Temperature                                            100
4.3c     Effect of Alligator Pepper (A.danielli) Addition on the Specific Gravity
of kunun-zaki Stored at Room Temperature                                                  101
4.3d     Effect of Alligator Pepper (A.danielli) Addition on the Specific Gravity
of kunun-zaki Stored at Refrigerated Temperature                                        101
4.3e     Effect of Alligator Pepper (A.danielli) Addition on the Sugar Level
of kunun-zaki Stored at Room Temperature                                                  102
4.3f      Effect of Alligator Pepper (A.danielli) Addition on the Sugar Level
of kunun-zaki Stored at Refrigerated Temperature                                        102
4.3g     Effect of Alligator Pepper (A.danielli) Addition on the Total Titratable
Acidity (TTA) of kunun-zaki Stored at Room Temperature                          103
4.3h     Effect of Alligator Pepper (A.danielli) Addition on the Total Titratable
Acidity (TTA) of kunun-zaki Stored at Refrigerated Temperature                103
4.3i      Effect of Alligator Pepper (A.danielli) Addition on the Volatile Acidity
(VA) of kunun-zaki Stored at Room Temperature                                         104
4.3j      Effect of Alligator Pepper (A.danielli) Addition on the Volatile Acidity
(VA) of kunun-zaki Stored at Refrigerated Temperature                              104

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