THE IMPACT OF MANPOWER TRAINING ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, UNEMPLOYMENT AND POVERTY IN NIGERIA
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Manpower is the basis of all resources and it is the indispensable means of converting other resources to man kind’s use and benefits. So how well we develop and employ human resources skills is fundamental in deciding how much we will accomplish as a nation. Manpower is the pivot of every human institution. Even in the developed and industrial nations of the world where the use of machines and technology is at an advanced stage, manpower is still very essential (Comma, 2008). Training therefore holds the key to unlock the potential growth and development opportunities to achieve a competitive edge. In this context, organizations train and develop their employees to the fullest advantage in order to enhance their effectiveness (Devi &Shaik, 2012). The importance of training as a central role of management has long been recognized by leading writers (Irene, 2013). Training both physically, socially, intellectually and mentally are very essential in facilitating not only the level of productivity but also the development of personnel in any organization (Olusanya et al, 2012). To manage an organization both large and small requires staffing them with competent personnel. The formal educational system does not adequately teach specific job skills for a position in a particular organization. Few employees have the requisite skills, knowledge, abilities and competencies (SKAC) needed to work. As a result, many require extensive training to acquire the necessary SKAC to be able to make substantive contribution towards the organization’s growth (Barron &Hagerty, 2001). In order to sustain economic growth and effective performance, it is important to optimize the contribution of employees to the aims and goals of the organizations. In a developing country like Nigeria, training and development of manpower resources is highly needed in virtually all business organizations for its effectiveness (Ezeani&Oladele, 2013). Deficiencies in knowledge, skills, and ability among public personnel, particularly those of Asia, Africa, and Latin America, are remarkable (Bahal, Swanson, & Earner, 1992). Training is necessary to ensure an adequate supply of staff that is technicallyand socially competent and capable of career development into specialist departments or management positions. There is therefore a continual need for the process of staff development, and training fulfils an important part of this process. Training should be viewed therefore as an integral part of the process of total quality management. Beardwell and Holden (1993) argue that the recognition of the importance of training in recent years has been heavily influenced by the intensification of competition and the relative success of organizations where investment in employee development is considerably emphasized.
1.2 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Ngu (1994) sees training and development to be the process of behavioural modification or moulding of workers to integrate organizational needs with their characteristics. Oribabor (2000) as cited in Kulkarni (2013) added that training and development aims at developing competencies such as technical, human, conceptual and managerial for the furtherance of individual and organization growth. In interpreting the above postulation Onah (2003) maintains that at the time of technological change and innovation both new and old employees need to be trained to update their knowledge and skills and keep them abreast of the new development in the techniques and methods of doing their jobs in order to achieve individual and organizational objectives. Halsay (1947) contents that training is the process of aiding employees in their present or future worth through the development of appropriate habit of thought and action, skills, knowledge and attitudes. Atiomo (2000), in supporting the foregoing, opines that training is the process of acquiring knowledge, skills and attitude for the sole purpose of executing a specific or present job more effectively and efficiently. Isyaku (2000) as cited in Kulkarni (2013) corroborated that the process of training and development is a continuous one. It is an avenue to acquire more and new knowledge and develop further the skills and techniques to function effectively. In reassessing and reviewing the submissions of Halsay(1947), Cruden and Sherman (1963), Ngu (1994), Atiomo (2000), Isyaku (2000), Oribabor (2000) and Onah (2003) as postulated above it shows that training is a course of action designed to enable the individual to realize his potentials for self-growth and organizational development. Flippo (1980); as cited in Ngu (1994) conceptualizes training as a calculated efforts aimed at increasing an employee skills for doing a particular job and developing person’s knowledge for vocational purpose. In correlation with the above stipulations the wordings of French (1974): can be reiterated, he maintains that training is a process that aims to bring up individuals up to a desire standards for present or potential assignment. In a similar line of reasoning Glueck (1986), sees training as a systematic process of altering the behaviour, knowledge and motivation of employees in a direction to increase organizational achievement. Glueck (1986) goes further to assert that training is a premeditated course of action taken in order to bring about changes in employees approach to work. In his own way Stones (1982) as cited in Atiomo (2000) corroborated that training is any organizational planned efforts to change the behaviour of employees so that they can perform to an acceptable and standard result on the job. In analysing the concept of training as submitted by Glueck (1986), Stones (1982), Flippo (1980), & French (1974) above, it can be seen and understood that they examined training from both conceptual and operational viewpoints. Therefore, training helps employees to improve their work performance in order to ensure the standard and quality of work required by the organization to achieve both organizational and individuals predetermined objectives.
The theoretical basis for this study is the system approach to training by Eckstrand (1964). This approach is considered suitable because problems such as training are considered not only in terms of training objectives and goals, but of the total organization or “system” in which the individual will be performing his task. The system theory was first developed in the biological and the engineering science before it was adopted by social scientists in explaining social and organizational phenomena. David Easton (1965) utilized the approach in his study of political structure. Daniel Katz and Robert Khan (1966) also used the open systems approach in studying “The social psychology of organizations. Nwakwo (1988:209) also adopted the systems approach in his book “Education and training for public management in Nigeria. The major concepts involved in the system theory can be summarized as follows:-
- A System can be perceived as a whole with various parts and their interdependent relationships.