FACTORS AFFECTING SPORTS GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF OYO STATE)
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Almost all the institutions of higher learning across the globe offers sport and recreation opportunities to its students and staff. These programmes and services are offered to serve several purposes of which at the summit of them all is to improve social cohesion and physical fitness of the students and staff members. The challenge faced by most tertiary institutions is that services and infrastructure provided are either over-utilised or underutilised and there appears to be unknown factors precipitating the situation. It is therefore important that the motives and constraints to sport and recreation participation be discovered in an effort to help direct future strategic plans and correct present and past mistakes.Theprimaryaimofthepresentstudyistoascertainthefactorsthataffectlocaland international student’s participation in sport and recreation, with the intention of providing pertinentinformationthattheUniversityofKwaZulu-NatalSportAdministrationOfficecan utilize in imminent strategic plans for campus based sport and recreation delivery. A descriptive research design was utilised and a questionnaire was designed to investigate the views and perceptions of students (n=199) staying at the University of KwaZulu-Natal residences. The Median (M) and Interquartile Range (IQR) was used as a summary statistic. The non-parametric two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) test was used to compare sub-groups. Intrapersonal and interpersonal factors prevents participation, more specifically time and lack of partners. Justifications for participation in sport and recreation were achievement/status, energy release and fun. Findings further reveal differences based on gender and age highlight the views of students on unequal treatment of various sport and recreation codes on campus. The study findings further advance knowledge on constraints andmotivesaffectingsportandrecreationparticipationamonguniversitystudents,revealing information for policymakers to consider when designing programmes for student services oncampus.
Overthelasttwodecadestheprevalenceofobesityhasincreasedsubstantiallyinallpartsof the world (Toriola & Monyeki, 2013; WHO, 2010; WHO, 2014). The World Health Organization (2014) estimates that approximately two billion citizens are overweight and morethanhalf abillionofthepopulationisobese.Elevenpercent(11%)of menand15%of women above the age of eighteen are overweight as a result of physical inactivity and poor diet (WHO, 2010; WHO,2014).
Historically, excessive weight and obesity were health related conditions found predominantly among citizens of high income countries (WHO, 2010; WHO, 2014). Today these lifestyle related diseases have become burdensome, causing mortality in middle and lower income countries (WHO, 2014). The number of overweight and obese SouthAfricans has increased significantly in the new millennium as a result of nutritional deficiencies and high sedentary lifestyles (Toriola & Monyeki, 2013; Moss, 2014; Department of Health South Africa (DOHSA), 2015; WHO, 2016; Mungal-Singh, 2016; WHO,2016).
AccordingtotheHeartandStrokeFoundation,SouthAfricanseattoomuch,drinktoomuch alcohol and don’t move enough during their leisure time (Mungal-Singh, 2016). This is exacerbatedbyalackofinclusiveenvironments,ashortageofpersonneltopromotephysical activity, increased reliance on technological devices, transport and time management constraints (SSISA, 2010; WHO, 2010; WHO, 2014; DOHSA, 2015). Engaging in physical activities on the other hand is prescribed by International bodies and Governments because numerous researchers have reported that engaging in sport or physical activities improves one’s social, physiological and psychological function (WHO, 2014; DOHSA,2015).
The global status reports by the World Health Organization reveal that Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) are a leading cause of deaths globally (WHO, 2010; WHO, 2014). Non- communicable diseases include; certain cancers, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension and coronary heart disease (WHO, 2010; Knight, 2012; WHO, 2014). Non- Communicable Diseases are attributed to individual behaviour and lifestyle habits (WHO, 2010;WHO,2014;WHO,2016).Thesebehavioursandhabitsaretoalargeextentinfluenced
by economic transition, rapid urbanization and modern lifestyle factors which include smoking, alcohol consumption, diet and physical inactivity (WHO, 2010; WHO, 2014).
Approximately 3.2 million deaths occur annually due to non-communicable diseases as a result of causes related to physical inactivity, sedentary lifestyle and nutritional deficiencies (WHO,2010).TheDepartmentofHealthSouthAfrica(2015)reportedthatthereisagrowing number of young people who are overweight and suffering from NCD’s related to physical inactivity.
An examination of the literature further reveals that students are not engaging in enough physical activity, placing the heath of future leaders at risk of mortality caused by non- communicable diseases (Daskapan, Tuzun & Eker, 2006; Lovell, Ansari & Parker, 2010; WHO, 2010; Edgington, Chin & Bronikowski, 2011; Awotidebe et al., 2014; Mohlala & Ramilavhana, 2014; Noorbhai, Hoosen, Lategan & Noakes, 2014; WHO, 2014; DOHSA, 2015; Halforty & Radder, 2015; Peltzer & Pengpid, 2016).
Participation in physical activities is recommended because it yields a variety of physiological,psychologicalandsocialbenefits(WHO,2010;WHO,2014;DOHSA,2015). Engaging in physical activities has been reported to reduce the risks of lifestyle related diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity, hypertension, cancerand diabetes mellitus (WHO, 2010; McGuirk & Prentice, 2012). In addition to health benefits, one experiences a greaterqualityoflifesociallyandpsychologically(Ebben&Brudzynski,2008;WHO,2010; Henchy, 2011; WHO, 2014; DOHSA,2015).
Understanding the value of physical activities, institutions of higher learning have invested heavily in sport and recreation resources (Webber & Mearman, 2005; Soleymani, Farshard & Fharzard, 2012; Desrochers, 2013; UWC, 2014). Students who engage in physical activitiesforrecreationalpurposesexperienceabetterqualityoflife.Competitively,students who excel in sports receive recognition on various public platforms, which is attributed to the institution one is representing (Desrochers, 2013). Furthermore, the recognition of studentswhoexcelinsportandacademicshasapositiveimpactontherecruitmentofschool learners, institutional image, and increases the likelihood of private donors investing in the institution (Desrochers,2013).
With the value and benefits of sport being noted above, several questions arise. Firstly, why isthereanincreaseinobesityratesinadolescents?Whatiscausingstudentsnottoengagein
physical activities on campus? What are the current motives for participation in physical activities, as recorded in existing research? Are the factors affecting participation in sport at UKZN publicly known based on the expressed views of students?
Researchers have investigated and established several key reasons for participation in sport and recreation. Justifications for participation in sport and recreational activities include; enjoyment,skillsdevelopment,friendships,competition,fitness,health,achievement,status, fun, energy and stress release (Hoe, 2007; Australian Bureau of Statistic, 2007; Ebben & Brudzynski, 2008; Afsanepurak, Hossini, Seyfari, & Fathi, 2012; Peters, Scholtz & Weilbach,2014).
Investigators further reveal that while providing sport and recreation is rewarding to the student and the institution, not all students are able to enjoy these rewards, because thereare barriers preventing students’ participation (Mchunu & Le Roux, 2008; Mugwedi & Mulibana, 2014; Peters et al., 2014). These barriers include; time management, demanding academic workloads, a lack of partners to participate with in sport activities, financial challenges,thestateandaccessibilityoffacilities(Hoe,2007;Shifmanetal.,2011;Nolan& Surujal, 2011; Hashim, 2012). Researchers broadly classify these barriers as intrapersonal, interpersonal and structural constraints to participation in sport and recreation (Crawford & Godbey, 1987; Crawford, Jackson & Godbey,1991).
The University of KwaZulu-Natal abides by numerous policies mandating it to deliver different services to students, e.g. health, social and sport and recreation services. The UniversityofKwaZulu-Natalofferssportandrecreationprogrammesthatcatersforeveryone who is interested in either recreational sports or competitive sports (UKZN, 2012). The UniversityofKwaZulu-Natalunderstandsthebenefitsofengaginginsportsandrecreational activities, hence opportunities are provided for students to participate. The existence and success of university sport and recreation services depends on several factors, (i) level of students’ participation, (ii) availability of programmes that caters for all, (iii) the standard and quality of built sports infrastructure and (iv) the standard ofadministration.
An examination of the literature reveals that there is a decline in levels of participation in sports and recreational activities despite the reported benefits obtainable from participation (Kimm et al., 2002; WHO, 2010; McVeigh & Meiring, 2014; WHO, 2014; DOHSA, 2015;
Halforty & Radder, 2015). Several researchers across the country have conducted studies to address the issue of low levels of participation in sport and recreation at higher learning institutions (Asihel, Jones & Malcom, 2005; Peters et al., 2014; Kubayi & Surujal, 2014; Mugwedi & Mulibana, 2014). However, none of the previous researchers include the views ofinternationalstudentsorreportonthestudents’viewsattheUniversityofKwaZulu-Natal. With the Strategic Plan (UKZN, 2012) on the verge of being outdated, an exploratory study was conducted to understand the factors that affect student participation in sport and recreation. Understanding the current factors which affect student participation in sport and recreationisimportantforuniversitypolicymakerswhendesigningstrategiestoimprovethe delivery of studentservices.
The present study will be undertaken to answer the following research questions:
- What are the constraints preventing university students from participating in campus- based sport and recreationactivities?
- What are the motives to engage in campus-based sport and recreationactivities?
- Whatareuniversitystudents’perceptionsofthecurrentdeliveryofcampus-basedsport and recreationservices?
The aim of the study is to ascertain the factors that affect local and international student’s participation in sport and recreation, with the intention of providing pertinent information that the University of KwaZulu-Natal Sport Administration Office can utilize in imminent strategic plans for campus based sport and recreation delivery.
The objectives of this study are to:
- Establish the reasons why students do not participate in campus-based sport and recreationactivities.
- Explorewaystoincreasetheparticipationfrequenciesofstudentwhodonotengagein campus-based sport and recreation activities.
- Establish the motives causing students to participate in campus-based sport and recreationactivities.
- Establish how sport and recreation services could be improved for students who participate in sport and recreation activities.
- Make recommendations to improve the uptake of sport and recreation activities by students inresidences.
Thepresentstudyisquantitativeandqualitativeinnature.Thequestionnairewasconsidered appropriate as it allowed the researcher an opportunity to establish the factors affecting the participation in sport and recreation of students living in residences at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, whilst enabling respondents’ ample opportunity to express their views on sportandrecreationattheircampus.Studentswereconsideredanappropriatesampleasthey werethemainrecipientsoftheservicesdeliveredoncampus.Completedquestionnaireswere collectedfromtherespectiveresidencesattheUniversityofKwaZulu-Natalandthedatawas analysed, leading to the findings of theinvestigation.
1.8 Definition of terms used in thetext
Thissectionservestogiveabriefdefinitionoftermsusedinthisthesisinorderforthereader to have clarity when they are used in thetext.
Constraint/s: a factor or factors which prevent or prohibit an individual from participating and enjoying a leisure activity (Jackson, 2000).
Higher Education: all learning programmes leading to a qualification that meets the requirements of the higher education qualifications framework (DHETSA, 1997).
Leisure:thetimewhichanindividualhasfreedomfromworkorotherdutiesandwhichmay be utilized for the purposes of relaxation, diversion, social achievement, or personal development (Gist & Fava, 1964).
Motive/s: a combination of desires and needs that cause a person to act, or is the reason for a behaviour (Smith, 2008).
Physicalactivity:allbodymovementthatisproducedbythecontractionofskeletalmuscles and that substantially increases energy expenditure (Thomas, Nelson & Silverman, 2011). Throughout this document physical activity and sport are used interchangeably to avoid repetitiveness.
Physical fitness: a set of attributes that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity (Caspersen, Powell & Christenson, 1985).
Recreation: a guided process of voluntary participation in any activity which contributes to theimprovementofgeneralhealth,well-beingandtheskillsofboththeindividualandsociety (DSRSA,1994).
Service delivery: the distribution of basic resources that citizens depend on, including infrastructure and land (Chen, Dean, Frant & Kumar, 2014). For the purpose of this investigation service delivery refers to sport and recreation resources (facilities, coaches, information) students require to function at their peak and improve their standard of health.
Sport: institutionalized competitive activities that involve vigorous physical exertion or the use of relatively complex skills by individuals whose participation is motivated by a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors (Coakley, 2001).
Student: a person who is registered and studying fulltime or through distance learning at a university or college of higher education.
1.9 Outline of the chapters in thedissertation
This dissertation consists of six chapters which are presented in the following format:
- Chapter one provided the introduction and statement of theproblem.
- Chapter two reviews theliterature.
- Chapter three describes themethodology.
- Chapter four presents theresults.
- Chapter five provides a discussion of thefindings.
- Chapter six details the study’s conclusions and providesrecommendations.
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