THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS IN PEACE BUILDING IN MAIDUGURI (A CASE STUDY OF ACTION AID INTERNATIONAL NIGERIA)
Highest on the list of prime value for Maiduguri a town in Bornu state, Nigeria, is peace. Peace is the most valuable public commodity, yet the most elusive (Francis David, 2006). These four years (2009-2014) of Insurgency has brought loss of lives and halted economic activities in various parts of Maiduguri. The activities of bokoharam have brought devastating effects on Maiduguri which has resulted in loss of lives both human and livestock, suffering, destruction of infrastructures and public/private facilities, disruption of economic/socio-economic activities like agricultural, trade etc. This situation has threatened not only the internal peace and security of Maiduguri but also the peace in Nigeria and beyond. So alarming is the fact that most of these areas affected by insurgency lack the will to stop this social charade and have fallen prey to continuous usury and subtle manipulation by politicians who take advantage of this situation to involve in shady deals like kidnapping and arm deals using insurgency as a cover (Chiedu, 2013). Peace building has therefore become the most pressing challenge faced by Nigeria at large and Maiduguri in particular. This situation is so partly because of feudal system of leadership which encourages total submission to authority without question which carries with it, ineffective terror control means.
Despite the effort of government through its institutions like the armed forces, religious bodies, NGOs etc, to curb the excesses of insurgence in Maiduguri, peace has continued to elude her and sustainable development, stopped. On that note, this project will seek to show the role of NGOs in peace building in Maiduguri.
1.2.BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Although insurgency is not easily defined, it may be said to be the use of force, usually violent, as a means of coercing a target population to submit to the will of the terrorists (Asika,4:2009). Insurgency is intended to elicit or maximise fear and publicity, making no distinction as to combatants and non combatants in a conflict.
There is no legally agreed upon definition of the term ‘Insurgency’, but a recent United Nations (UN) document describes it as any ‘act which is intended to cause death or serious bodily harm to civilians or non combatants with the purpose of intimidating a population or compelling a government or an international organisation to do or abstain from doing any act’. The word ‘Insurgency’ is both emotionally and politically laden, particularly as it imports issues of national liberation and self-determination. Insurgency takes many forms, including political, philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious and ecological issues. The taxonomy of Insurgency, including precipitating motivations and considerations, is now a subject of intense study. Whether the one as seen in Maiduguri can be reduced to a type may be an interesting subject, but for purposes of this work, the primary concern is the threat of insurgency. Insurgency is one objective of organised terrorism, just as terrorism is one of several strategies of insurgency. Both terrorism and insurgency may be used by states in their internal operations. Terrorism and terrorist tactics constitute part of the strategies and tactics of insurgency. The operational tactics are essentially those of guerilla warfare. The object is to intimidate, frustrate and raise the feeling of uncertainty, imminent danger and the loss of hope, so as to cripple or limit all aspects of human activity and normal livelihoods. Al Qaeda, Boko Haram, MEND and, lately, Jama’atu Ahlissunnah Lidda’anati Wal Jihad, are currently international and local Nigerian examples of terrorist networks. Until recently, Nigerian terrorist activity was thought to be motivated by ethnocentric considerations. Currently, there appears to be a pronounced religious content in the character of insurgency in Maiduguri. A few of the earlier experiences merit examination here, as a guide in estimating the character, trend and intensity of the current campaign, as well as the role of NGOs in peace building in Maiduguri.
1.3.STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Previous research works on the role of NGOs in peace building in Insurgency affected areas especially Maiduguri shows that there is no government that can take on single handily, the weight of peace building in form of aid. Among the various actors that participate in these processes are the nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), which fulfil a pivotal role in terms of establishing and maintaining essential services like assisting refugees and internally displaced populations and helping to strengthen societies.
NGOs increasingly work “in the field,” providing humanitarian relief and development assistance in post terror places like Maiduguri. As they carry out their work, they face many serious problems. Insurgencies often deny them access to those in need, terrorist groups demand payoffs, and local violence threatens the safety and even the lives of field personnel. Donors also subject these NGOs to political pressure, diminishing their neutrality. Nongovernmental Organizations face a lot of challenges in the discharge of their duties often caused by Insurgent activities. They are faced with the dilemma; should they negotiate with terrorists to deliver aid, or should they maintain independence and impartiality. Some Nigerian agencies like WACOL operate only through local partners because they cannot negotiate with terrorist-affiliated groups. Red Cross has resorted to having armed escorts and allow Movement for Peace in Maiduguri (MFPIM) and Africa Awake to supervise the aid distribution. Although impartiality is valuable for the long term operation in Maiduguri, humanitarian aid agencies feel they are forced to compromise these principles in an effort to gain aid access according Osueke (2006)
With the spate at which insurgence has dealt a heavy blow on Maiduguri, economically, socially and otherwise, this research work will seek to highlight challenges of insurgency. Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs), the role of NGOs in peace building in Maiduguri and the way forward.
So as to achieve the purpose of this research the following will be looked into:
- To assess the role of NGOs in Peace Building.
- To examine the effectiveness of NGOs in the peace building in restive areas in the North East.
- To identify the way forward for NGOs in the peace building campaign.
So as to achieve the objectives stated above, the following research questions were used as a guide in achieving the objectives of this research work:
- What are the roles of NGOs in peace building?
- How effective have NGOs been in peace building in Maiduguri?
- What is the way forward for NGOs in the peace building campaign?
To solve the problems mentioned in the research questions, the following hypothesis are formulated:
Ho: NGOs are not effective in the peace building campaign
H1: NGOs are not effective in the peace building campaign
1.7.SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
One of the benefits of this research work is to researchers and academics. It will be of tremendous help to governments and their agencies in tackling insurgency and the challenges that comes with it.
The findings and recommendations of the researcher will help bring to the fore the role of Nongovernmental Organizations in peace building coupled with limitations to their work.
It will also be readily available for international organizations that may need insight into what it is like for NGOs working in Maiduguri.
1.8.SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work focuses solely on the role of Nongovernmental Organization in peace building in Maiduguri. It also touched the challenges of Insurgency and how it affects the work of NGOs.
Based on the findings of this study, another research area touched is Peace building.
1.9.LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
This research work was carried out under a tight schedule. The time frame was short in between lectures and private studies.
Another limitation faced by the researcher was delay in data collection from the various respondents. Most respondents were too busy to fill up the questionnaires due to their work schedule. This almost delayed the work.
1.10.DEFINITION OF TERMS
Insurgency: An insurgency is a rebellion against a constituted authority (for example, an authority recognized as such by the United Nations) when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents
Peace Building: Peace building is a process that facilitates the establishment of durable peace and tries to prevent the recurrence of violence by addressing root causes and effects of conflict through reconciliation, institution building, and political as well as economic transformation.
NGO: Non Governmental Organizations
Action Aid works with poor people in over 40 countries across the world. Our goal? To end poverty. We believe in doing things differently. We know that with the right opportunities, poor people will find their own solutions – and build new lives.
Action Aid Nigeria commenced programmatic operations in January 2000 after a Country appraisal which found poverty in the midst of plenty. We commenced work then through a Country Agreement signed with the National Planning Commission of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Our works are currently spread across 26 states of the federation.
- Work with government and their institutions to promote laws, policies and practices that address the rights of poor and excluded communities
- Work with organisations to advocate accountable, democratic and transparent governance with pro-poor policies and programmes
- Enhance access for women and girls to decision-making process, resources and justice at all levels
- Strengthen poor and excluded people and communities to influence policies and practices that affect their rights
- Strengthen the structures, systems and processes of ActionAid Nigeria and partners for accountable, effective and dynamic operations
The Vision of AAN is to see a Nigeria without poverty and injustice in which every person enjoys his or her right to life with Dignity.
Action Aid Nigeria’s mission is to work with the poor and excluded people to eradicate poverty and injustice in Nigeria.
Action Aid Nigeria lives by the following values of Action Aid and which has been demonstrated through the accountability, learning and planning system (ALPS) and this include; mutual respect, equity and justice, honesty and transparency, solidarity with the poor, powerless and excluded, courage of conviction, independence from any religious or political party affiliation and Humility in presentation and behaviour.
Board of Trustees
Prof. Patricia Donli – ChairProf. Sam Egwu – Vice ChairProf. U. A. IgunDr. Kole ShettimaMr. David NwachukwuDr. T. AgaryComrade John OdahMr. Johnson IkubeMrs. Omotunde Ellen-ThompsonDr. Jummai Umar-AjijolaMallam Lawal Abdullahi IndeMrs. Hauwa Evelyn ShekarauMrs. Ranti Bosede Daudu Dr. Abdu Hussaini
Abahlali, B. M. (2006). Rethinking public participation from below, “critical dialogue”. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/non-governmental_organization
Anheier et al. (1997). The rise and fall of transnational civil society: The evolution of international non-governmental organizations since 1839. http://abahlali.org/node
Anheier et al. (2001). The new geography of global civil society: NGOs in the world city network. Journal of International Globalization, 1, 265-277.
Anheier et al. (2007). What is an NGO? New York. Cambridge Univer-sity Press.
Azar, E. (1990). The management of protracted social conflict. Theory and cases, Dartmounth: Aldershot.
Burton, J. (1990). Conflict resolution and prevention. New York: St.
THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS IN PEACE BUILDING IN MAIDUGRI (A CASE STUDY OF ACTION AID INTERNATIONAL NIGERIA)