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The criminal justice system revolves around three cardinal institutions: the police, court and prison. These institutions are partners in our failing criminal justice system, due to some practices that are inimical to the interest of society. Thus, the incalculable harm being wrecked on the Nigerian criminal justice system by the holding charge practice cannot be justified. Holding charge which involves the bringing of a suspect before an inferior Court that lacks jurisdiction to try him or her for the primary purpose of securing a remand order, in order to look for a prima facie evidence in support of the allegation against the suspect and thereafter abandon him or her in prison under the pretext of awaiting trial, leaves one to wonder whether the presumption of innocence is tenable in Nigeria. Holding Charge Syndrome

This is because under this practice, an accused is presumed guilty until he or she proves his innocence. Also, the crisis of congestion in our prison is the result of the holding charge practice. It is trite, that jurisdiction is the life-wire of any litigation whether civil or criminal and the base on which adjudication rest. It follows that there is obviously an anomaly in bringing a suspect for remand before a magistrate who has no power to impose penalty for the indictable offence allegedly committed by the suspect. Therefore, the practice by magistrate courts who lacked Jurisdiction in indictable offence, but goes on to remand the suspect under holding charge have been considered unconstitutional, because it is a threat to the accused person’s rights to personal liberty, dignity, and fair hearing granted by the 1999 constitution (as amended). However, some states laws have given the magistrate court the impetus to continue with this harmful practice without regard to the provisions of the grundnorm. Consequently, this research work, in chapter one will take a look at the historical inception of holding charge; chapter two will focus on the meaning of the monster called holding charge, the reason for its adoption and the illegality. Chapter three will discuss on the rights of accused persons and how holding charge have thwarted its realization. Chapter four will examine the effect of holding charge in the criminal justice administration in Nigeria. The last chapter contains observation and recommendation, mainly on abrogation of all the laws that gave magistrate courts powers to remand suspects on indictable offences even when they have no jurisdiction. Holding Charge Syndrome


Title page                                                                                 i

Declaration                                                                      ii

Approval page                                                                  iii

Dedication                                                                       iv

Acknowledgement                                                            v

Abstract                                                                           viii

Table of content                                                               xi

Accounting system


  • Introduction 1

1.1   Background of the study                                          4

1.2   Statement of the study                                             6

1.3   Objective of the study                                              7

1.4   Research questions                                                  8

1.5   Significance of the study                                          9

1.6   Scope of the study                                                   10

1.7   Historical Background of the case study                  10


  • Literature review 13

2.1   History of computers                                                        13

2.1.1        Generations of computer                                         15

2.1.2        First Generation of computer                                   15

2.1.3. Second Generation of Computer                            17

2.1.4        Third Generation of computer                                  18

2.1.5        Fourth Generation of Computer                               18

2.1.6        Fifth Generation of Computer                                  19

2.2   Types computers                                                      20

2.2.1        Types of computer based on function                      20

2..2.2 Types of computer Based on structure                   22

2.2.3        Types of computer based on usage                          23

2.3   The computer hardware system                               24

2.3.1        The Generation processing Unit (C.P.U)                   25

2.3.2        The peripherals                                                        26

2.4   The computer software system                                 28

2.5   Method of procession data as i

2.5.1        Input                                                                        36

2.5.2        Processor                                                                         36

2.5.3        Storage                                                                    36

2.5.4        Output                                                                     36

2.6   Method input                                                           37

2.7   Techniques of processing                                                 41

2.7.1        Batch processing                                                     41

2.7.2        On line processing                                                   41

2.7.3        Real time processing techniques                              42

2.7.4        Looping or cycling processing techniques                        42

2.7.5        Interactive processing techniques                            43

2.7.6        Data base control system                                         43

2.8   Data processing department and control                 44

2.8.1        Internal Data processing control                              44

2.8.2        External Data processing control                             45

2.9   Computer based Accounting system                                45

2.9.1        The need for computerized accounting system        46

2.9.2        Advantages of computer based

Accounting system                                                   47

  • Disadvantages of computer based accounting system 49


  • Introduction 51
  • Research design 51
  • Area of study 51
  • Population of the study 52
  • Sample 52
  • Instruments for data collection 53
  • Validation of the instruments 53
  • Reliability of the instruments 54
  • Methods of data collection 54
  • Method of data analysis                                          54


4.0   Data presentation and analysis                               57

4.1   Data presentation                                                    57

4.2   Data Analysis

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