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The Role Of The Broadcast Media In Campaign Against Hiv/Aids In Anambra State

THE ROLE OF THE BROADCAST MEDIA IN THE CAMPAIGN AGAINST  HIV/AIDS IN  NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

The aim of  this study  is to ascertain the role  of Mass media in the campaign  against HIV/AIDS  in Nigeria. Factors such as media campaigns, AIDS  campaign  messages, sexual   behaviour and the extent in which  the campaigns  structures  the masses were  posed to establish their relative influence on the entire masses toward HIV/AIDS.

An empirical  survey diligently  conducted  from 82 Division  Barracks, Federal secretariat  complex and the Mass communication students  IMT. Enugu HND finals. Data were analysed to determine the effect on the mass media campaign against AIDS.

The findings  show that media campaigns have been observed  to be the  quickest means of eradicating the AIDS menace, as well as restructure the attitude of the masses through the use of condoms stickling to one partner and avoiding casual sex.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1        BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

1.2        STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

1.3        OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

1.4        SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

1.5        RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.6        RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

1.7        DEFINITION OF TERMS

1.8        ASSUMPTION OF TERMS

1.9        ASSUMPTION

1.10    SCOPE & LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1        THE REVIEW

2.2        THE MEDIA CAMPAIGN AGAINST AIDS

2.3        ASSESSMENT OF THE MEDIA EFFECT

2.4        SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER  THREE

RESEARCH  METHODOLOGY

3.1        RESEARCH  METHODOLOGY

3.2        RESEARCH  METHOD

3.3        RESEARCH  DESIGN

3.4        RESEARCH  SAMPLE

3.5        MEASURING INSTRUMENT

3.6        DATA  COLLECTION

3.7        METHOD  OF  DATA  ANALYSIS

3.8        EXPECTED RESULT

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA  PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1    DATA    ANALYSIS

4.2    ANALYSIS OF RESEARCH

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, IMPLICATION &  RECOMMENDATION

5.1        SUMMARY

5.2        CONCLUSION

5.3        IMPLICATION OF FINDINGS

5.4        RECOMMENDATION

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1      BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

For broadcast media campaign on any issue to interest the public, it must not be  regarded as fallacious  or unsystematically prepared but rater  involving message on existing  public interest to the people based on experiences, facts, beliefs, socio- economic and educational backgrounds.

Against this background the federal  government  in conjunction with other countries  of the world through the World Health Organization (WHO) decided to embark on massive campaigns against AIDS  pandemic in the country.

The broadcast media, as part of its effort to eradicate  this deadly scourge which   has defied the federal  government through the ministry of Health in 1986 established the National AIDS control Programmes  in response to public concerns raised the  presence of Human Immune Deficiency syndrome  Virus (HIV)  infestation in Nigeria.

Again, in response to the evidence and the debate  on the existence if AIDS  in Nigeria the  then minister of Health, Profession Olukoye Ranson Kuti in 1987, instituted  the National expert Advisory committee on AIDS (NEACA) and was charged with the responsibility of establishing whether or not  AIDS exist in Nigeria . they were also mandated to  advise the government as well as draw up programmes strategies and activities  to prevent control of HIV infection in the country.

The report from the committee stated that “HID and AIDS existed in Nigeria and warned that unless immediate steps were taken to prevent the spread of the diseases, the country would be faced with tremendous health problem” This necessitate the  establishment of AIDS  Co-ordinating units and  twenty one (21) testing facilities  in the  various states of the federation. Training  was conducted for personnel to man these  centres. There were also public enlightenment  activities  and production of educational  materials like posters, handbills, pamphlets, and books on AIDS.

In February 1989, a two weeks workshop was organized by the Federal   Ministry  of Health, and other Human services  Organization including states ministries of health with the technical  assistance  from the global  programme on AIDS (GPA), world bank and  other international agencies to   address the issue of AIDS in  Nigeria. In march 1990, a resources mobilization meeting was convened  with participation by the Federal ministry of Health,  by the  World Health Organization,  Global Programme on AIDS  and other International  denor agencies.

Also in march, the National AIDS  Co-coordinating units  had the  first “All Nigerian conference  on AIDS” during which the then vice President, Admiral  Augustus Aikomu (rtd) launched the  maiden edition on the  Hand book on  HIV  infection and AIDS for health workers. All these efforts were aimed at affecting possible  solution towards cursing the AIDS measure in Nigeria and to ensure healthier environment for  the popular.

Assertions have been made that the Acquired Immune  Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a mere fallacy and  government propaganda of scaring people from enjoying   sexual relationship. Some ridiculous  names  have been given  the acronym AIDS, such  as America  idea of Dissuading Sex, Animal infected diseases syndrome and so on. It has been discovered that the greater number of people infected by  AIDS fall within the range of 20 – 40 years of age which is the prime age of life.

Despite  this fact, the non-challance  of our masses still prevails in relation, to accept the media campaign  on AIDS  as a  complete truth. Moreover,  one should not forget  that it takes a lot of courage and grief to affect change in a society .

Though this  study may not go  into the structure of the AIDS control Programmes or the immanent dangers inherent in AIDS, it will  look at the information  management and the use of  media  campaigns  to facilities proper public understanding of programme. It will prove the  degree of which the entire public have related to the AID campaign  and to what extent these campaigns have helped alert the masses the dangers of AIDS, and then make recommendations.

THE AIDS  DISEASE IN NIGERIA

Human Immune  virus (HIV) infection and AIDS in Nigeria was first discovered in 1984 among researchers at the National Institute for medical  Research, Yaba Lagos .The first evidence of AIDS  in Nigeria was reported to Health Officials  by Nasidi  and Heavy in 1986. according to him, the  first few cases were seen in prostitutes in Lagos and former Anambra State ,  now Anambra and Enugu State respectively.

In September 1991, Federal Ministry of health and social services reported officially that    out of 125,00 book sample screened for HIV infection nationwide, 830 were seropositive given a seroprevalance rate of  about 0.66 percent and these confirmed  the existence of HIV infection nationwide.

BROADCASTING IN NIGERIA

British Broadcasting  Corporation (BBC) started  to broadcast to its dominions in 1930. by 1932, Nigeria started  receiving BBC, Lagos received  and  wised those messages into homes through re diffusion  sets  in the  major cities  of the  colony.

Later in 1959, Nigeria became the first African country to operate and own a television  station called Western Nigeria Television (WNT) followed by East central  state broadcasting services on October 1st  1960, the former eastern Region transmitted its own radio and  Television signals over the air to coincide with the attainment of Nigeria Independence .

In1962,  the  Northern Region Governors started its own broadcasting system, which was the most successful among the three in commercial  advertising  and coverage of public awareness programmes. To achieve  this, it started a bolster television station near Lagos so that its residents  could equally switch  on to the regionalization  of the  broadcast media. They  were used as powerful political instrument   for the integration of each region and  cultivation  of regional  awareness more than national consciousness and  integration. The politicians  who established  this, tremendously exploited them for sectional politics .

The radio is the most effective medium of information at the grassroots level in Nigeria. The effectiveness of this medium has further  been enhanced by the  Organizations decentralization. The only radio  network in the country is now the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria, Broadcasting Corporation  in 1951. it has  in the past embarked on the regionalizing  or even localizing greater proportion of radio  programming in every part of the country, this leaving the network look up to only essential national programmes. The other regionally based radio stations like Radio Television Kaduna (RTK) , Western Nigeria Broadcasting Service  (WNBS), Eastern Nigerian Broadcasting  Services, later known as Anambra Broadcasting Services were  equally effective in meeting with the regional  or local needs which they were set up  to satisfy .

The boom of radio  in this country was during civil war. The possession of radio set at that time was a necessity and not a luxury. That  era developed in the minds of the ordinary Nigerians the awareness of their society, national ideas and objectives  and the method of approach. One would seat that time that even the cattle man taking care of his  flock, had a radio  on his shoulder. Cluster of people perched here and there, listening to latest  development in the national pursuit. The origin of Television can be traced  to 1884 when a German  Scientists Paul Niplow intended the scanning disc, which paved the way  for television and particularly 1923, when Doctor V.K Zwongkin   patented  the iconoscope. The  first television in Africa was Western Nigeria Television  (WNTV)in Ibadan, which became operational in October 31, 1959. in 1973, all the stations in Nigeria co-ordinated the all African Games  under one name. the broadcast organization of Nigeria  (BON). This  later gave the idea that led to establishment  of Nigeria Television Authority

Today ownership of television set is  regarded as status symbol or luxury in Nigeria. Television is the most suitable  channel or medium for effective  instrument in  educational broadcasting . in its  news items, television tries to visually bring actualities or happenings  outsides the society to viewers within the coverage area.

This broadcast media especially  from the seventies still date have played vital roles in various campaigns on politics, health, agriculture, literacy learning and formal educational. In the area of health campaigns  which is the main falcum in this study, the broadcast media have played key roles in bringing  certain   health Programmes like expanded Programme on Immunization, OPL, Oral  Retardation therapy (ORT), AIDS Polio, and Liver blindness.

Such campaigns are attributed  to behavioural or attitude change due to media effect. This study is  meant to study the role of mass media in the campaign against AIDS.

1.2      STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Some people still regard the existence of AIDS  in Nigeria as a  mere fallacy. Yet, the AIDS  Co-ordinated unit has proved that there is rapid emergency of AIDS infected person in Nigeria.

Therefore, the urge to identify the information efficiency of these HIV/AIDS campaigns, their acceptance and relevance to people has led to the study.

1.3      OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

This study intends to discover the broadcast handling of  health problems. It wishes  to know how these campaigns either locally or nationally have restructured  people’s attitude towards sexual behaviour.

It is aimed at discovering the hindrance in accepting these jingles  from the broadcast media. It also intends to reveal the general out of messages and to know if the broadcast media have lived up to the expectations.

1.4   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

It has been noted in many parts of the country that AIDS  is fast spreading, statistics  show that its infected persons  are increasing on daily  bases. It is  very crucial  to alert the entire masses of the dangers inherent in curing an infected persons.

It is  also necessary to reveal the extent the high  rate especially among infants (arriers ) and its  remedy  for the future generation.

It is hoped  therefore that the entire masses, policy makers, media practitioners students, government officials will benefit from the study.

1.5   RESEARCH  QUESTIONS

This following questions from the corner stone of the research.

1.     Do the media  campaign affect the attitudes of the entire masses toward their sexual behaviours?

2.     To  what extent have the campaigns message on AIDS helped to alert the masses on the imminent dangers of AIDS?

3.     In what ways do the masses perceive the campaigns against AIDS sine its inceptions ?

4.     What is the  remedy for the non-challant attitude of the masses towards the campaigns against AIDS?

1.6   RESEARCH    HYPOTHESIS

H0    :Mass media campaigns  on AIDS  have changed  the sexual behaviour of the entire masses.

H1    :Mass media campaigns on AIDS have not change  the sexual behaviour of the masses.

H0    :The information efficiency of broadcast media tends to reduce the spread of AIDS on the  entire masses.

1      :The information efficiency  of the media does not tend to reduce the spread of AIDS  on the   entire masses.

H0    The campaigns of AIDS  are more to scare the entire masses from causal  sex.

H1    The campaigns on AIDS messages are not likely to scare the entire masses from casual sex.

1.7      DEFINITION OF TERMS

AIDS: Acquired  Immune  Deficiency  Syndrome  AIDS  is an infections diseases spread by a virus, it  is   called syndrome   it because it consists of several signs and symptoms .

HIV: Human Immune virus, HIV is a  retrovirus, a  group  of virus, HIV is a retrovirus, a group of virus that is still largely known. HIV  has  been accepted internationally. The virus  destroys genetic material  and the damage is permanent.

MASS MEDID :-It refers to the major mass communication channels. Radio, Television, Newspaper, magazines, film, Book, Telecommunication, media Training, Advertising and Public  relations, news can  reach to a large scatted heterogeneous society. The mass  media inform and educate the masses based on the conviction that truth  and reasoned  judgment  would emerge from conflicts  of many voices on public issues.

CAMPAIGNS : It is organized series   of  operations in the advocacy of same  cause or object.

ROLE: It is a specific task or function played by an actor, an institution or organization for the realization of particular objectives.

TELEVISION :- It is the viewing of distant  objects or event  by electrical  transmission. It serves as the vital force of educational enrichment. Television  by its  appeal  commends more audience  because it combines  both audit and  sound to produce a  fashion ting  package  for the viewing public. It  serves as an opinion  leader and agenda setter in its news commentary.

RADIO :- It is a genetic  term  applied to methods  of  signaling through space without connecting wires by means of  electromagnetic  waves generated  by high frequency  alternating currents. Radio can be used to communicate  in the language of the people or project audience without any inhabitation  and does not  need any particular  level of  literacy.

BROADCASTING:- It is the  sending forth of material by radio, television for reception  by the public. The  international telecommunication union (ITV) defines broadcasting as  a radio  communication services in which the transmission are intended  for the  direct reception of the general public.

1:8   ASSUMPTION :-The role of  the mass media in the campaigns against HIV/AIDS in Nigeria is assumed that the  broadcast media play a key role in their  effort to fight HIV  in Nigeria. Looking at the  agenda  setting theory  of the mass media, which stated that the  media not only inform us but also influence us as what is important  to know.

1.9   SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY:- The scope of this study is limited to  the media  handling  of health problems. It is alsolimited to the   survey of the broadcast media campaigns  against  HIV/AIDS. This scope is based on  time and financial constraints

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