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Comparative analysis of the roles of mass communication and interpersonal communication in rural development: (a case study of umuchigbo in enugu east local government area, enugu state).

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE ROLES OF MASS COMMUNICATION AND INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT:

(A CASE STUDY OF OBEAGA I8N AWGU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, ENUGU STATE).

ABSTRACT

In this study on “Comparative Analysis of the Role of Mass Communication and Interpersonal Communication in Rural Development, a study of my town; Obeagu in Awgu Local government Area, Enugu State.  I studied the respective role of Mass Communication and interpersonal communication in rural development in order to find their exact roles, their differences and similarities, advantages and shortcomings and the likely ways both can help to enhance speedy of rural development.

The survey method of social science research was employed in this study.  Questionnaire and oral interviews were used in the data collection.

My findings revealed that:

(1)                   Mass Communication is ore effective in creating information awareness than interpersonal communication.

(2)                   Interpersonal Communication is more persuasive than Mass Communication

(3)                   Interpersonal Communication is more effective in decision making than Mass Communication.

(4)                   Government ownership of most media does not affect the rural dwellers belief of media content or messages.

Mass Communication and interpersonal communication play a vital role in rural development and both should be combined effectively in order to achieve the desired goal in rural development.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.1         BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

1.2         STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

1.3         OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

1.4         SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

1.5         RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.6         RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

1.7         OPERATIONAL DEFINITION

1.8         ASSUMPTIONS

1.9         LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

CHAPTER TWO

2.1         SOURCES OF LITERATURE

2.2         THE REVIEW

2.3         SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER THREE

3.1         RESEARCH METHOD

3.2         RESEARCH DESIGN

3.3         RESEARCH SAMPLE

3.4         MEASURING INSTRUMENT

3.5         DATA COLLECTION

3.6         DATA ANALYSIS

3.7         EXPECTED RESULTS

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1         DATA ANALYSIS

4.2         RESULTS

4.3         DISCUSSION

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1         SUMMARY

5.2         RECOMMENDATIONS

BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDIX.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1        BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The study of communication and development has been an issue of major concern to both developed and developing countries in communication studies.  Communication, the process by which messages are transferred from a source to one or more receivers, has become a vital aspect of rural development.  Communication is a part of the myriad decisions that, taken together, constitute rural development, a collective capability to make progress socially, economically, politically or technologically.

Leaner (1967) recognized the importance of communication as a stimulus for peasant modernization, “rooted in their place and pride traditional mankind lived by its constraints – unaware of them as constraints because no communication alerted them to alternative”.  This position is supported by the fact that attempt at enlightening them (peasants) always sometimes diverted to create social change among rural dwellers.

Describing the goal of communication (in rural development) Berlo noted that the basic purpose of communication is to “alter the original relationship between our organism and the environment, which is ourselves”.

More specifically communication, Berlo said has the basic purpose to become an affecting agent, to affect others, our physical environment and ourselves to become a determining agent to influence – to affect with intent”.

Western Scholars propounded the early development theories.  Many third world nations experimented with these theories believing that the large scale adoption of mass communication will invariably lead to development or modernization at both the structural an individual levels.  These western derived theories have come under intense scrutiny and criticism.  This is because the anticipated benefits suppose to have been grained from the adoption of western oriented models have not materialized.

It has often been said that the mass media were adopted into Nigerian socio-cultural values of the nation.  The sixties and seventies witnessed the massive expansion of mass media hardware facilities in Nigeria, but while the mass media hardware developed at a tremendous rate, the software component barely kept pace.  Thus instead of having a mass media with African and Nigerian cultural content, we have western oriented cultural content (Nwuneli: 85).

Despite this shortcoming, it is commonly accepted by many well-meaning scholars that mass communication medium e.g. Newspapers, Radio, Magazine, Television, etc. are available channels through which political leaders express their views and seek to rally public back for their policies.  Politicians and non-politicians alike, also recognizes the vital roles that the mass media play in the formation of opinion, they are aware of the dangers involved in misinforming the masses especially in a society where many believe whatever they read, hear or see as the case may be, in the media.

People working in the mass media have help position of social responsibility, playing key roles in shaping the political, economic and social lives of many.  Media offers the individual the opportunity to perform services of positive values to the society.

Also in every society, there are opinion leaders.  The opinions of these leaders to a great extent influences the opinions of other members of the society.  They are looked upon for interpretation of messages in their rural communities.

The study of the role of mass communication and interpersonal communication in rural development is peculiar and unique.  The existence and influence of mass communication, opinion leaders, family attachments, friends and other variable factors play a great role in rural development.

1.2        STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

This study is aimed at examining or showing a comparative analysis of the role of mass communication and interpersonal communication in rural development.  Communication is a part of the general development process and provides the needed link between planners and their goals.  Communication and rural development are closely linked; care should be taken not to over-assume that the effect of communication in development is both automatic and total.  It only plays a vital role in (rural) development.  Communication is essential for the conduct of everyday life transmitting messages among the various parts.

Mass Communication and Interpersonal Communication undoubtedly play a very vital role in rural development, but at what level they play their role is still subject to controversy.  At the broadcast level of society, both play a crucial and obstructive roles.

Communication theories have given different and constracting roles to these forms of communications.  There is still to be a consensus regarding their roles in rural development, which plays what role, which comes first?  And which serves as a supplement to the other?  Which should be used and when should one not be appropriate?  When should both be used and at what state should both complement each other.  When is it most appropriate to use one in preference to the other?

1.3        OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The objective of this study is to examine through research questionnaires, the role of mass communication and interpersonal communication in rural development.  This is an attempt to know how both medium of communication helps the rural man in his drive towards development through education and exposure to his environment, which help him to understand and appreciate his environment as well as having more say over his life.

The objective of the study therefore is to find the exact roles of both medium of communication in rural development, their differences and similarities; advantage, shortcoming and most likely ways both can be improved upon in order to help enhance speedy rural development.

1.4        SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Having studies communication and rural development critically.  It was deemed necessary to study the comparative role of mass communication and interpersonal communication in rural development.  It was important or relevant as it would enable us find out which is more effective as regards information awareness and persuasion in rural development and find out which the rural dwellers is more exposed to.

This study would also enable us to confirm of disconfirm that rural acceptance of information for example was as a result of its authenticity, credibility, content or otherwise

It is also necessary because no known study have been done on this subject, all the studies done in the area include the role of electronic media in rural development and the general content of radio.  We studies a comparative analysis of the role of mass communication and interpersonal communication in rural development particularly.

Furthermore, for a third world nation like Nigeria, this study assumed an added importance, given that it had been strongly in order to build a good communication policy in development programmes.  It is necessary to adopt an attitude congruent with its own value.

The question of what contribution, the result of this study would make to the already existing stock of knowledge is to enable development planners know what type of communication and at what time to use it when pursuing development programmes in the rural area.  This survey will produce much information of interest about factors affecting glistering members, exposure to communication, source credibility, authenticity, effectiveness etc.

1.5        RESEARCH QUESTION

1.     Is mass communication more effective than interpersonal communication in creating information awareness?

2.     Is interpersonal communication more effective than mass communication in persuasion?

3.     Is mass communication more effective than interpersonal communication in decision making?

4.     Do the source of information affect the rural dwellers believe of the messages content?

1.6        RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

The hypotheses for this study are:

H1:    Mass communication is more effective than interpersonal communication in creating information awareness.

H01:  Mass communication is not more effective than interpersonal communication in creating information awareness.

H2:    Interpersonal communication is more persuasive than mass communication.

H02:  Interpersonal communication is not more persuasive than mass communication

H3:    Interpersonal communication is more effective than mass communication in decision-making.

H03:  Interpersonal communication is not more effective than mass communication in decision-making.

H4:    Government ownership of communication media make the rural dwellers to disbelieve the content of those media.

H04:  Government ownership of the media does not make the rural dwellers to disbelieve the content of those media.

1.7        DEFINITION OF TERMS – CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL

Roles:         Function, part a subject or an object play or perform.

Interpersonal Communication:        Communication between two or small group of people.

Mass communication:    The act or process of transmitting information, ideas of opinion from a source to a diverse audience.

Development:      This refers to social change and economic growth i.e. increase in per capita income of a country.

Rural:         Agriculture, remote or isolated area.

OPERATIONAL TERM DEFINITION

Roles:         Function and impact of mass communication and interpersonal communication

Interpersonal communication:        Communication between friends, family members, community planners and rural members communication between opinion leaders and rural members.

Mass communication:    Refers to electronic and print media.

Development:      Social change, willingness to accept new ideas and change.

Rural:         Remote areas.

1.8        ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY

In studying the comparative        analysis of the role of mass communication ad interpersonal communication in rural development, it is assumed that everyone in the study is aware of both mass communication and interpersonal communication and have been exposed to both mass communication and interpersonal communication.

Also, an assumption was made that even though other factors, like usefulness of message and intelligence of an individual may affect understanding, the factors are controlled through the systematized random sampling procedures.

This ensures that subject of a particular level of intelligence with particular use for a message are in the same and also in the larger population.  This study also assumed that the subjects for this study are to be found among the rural dwellers themselves which include or who are mainly farmers, traders, teachers, local government officials, civil servants, traditional doctors and students.

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