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GOVERNMENT AND THE MANAGEMENT OF SECURITY CHALLENGES IN NIGERIA

GOVERNMENT AND THE MANAGEMENT OF SECURITY CHALLENGES IN NIGERIA

SECURITY CHALLENGES

ABSTRACT
Security concerns have existed since time immemorial. But, the challenges have never been as readily manifested as they are presently. This is rather disconcerting. Moreso, because some of the security challenges and problems we encounter daily in the contemporary society are almost entirely unpredictable. Indeed, rapid growth and use of mechanical arts, applied science, and revolutionary dynamics of society apparently blend well with the desperate nature of the criminally minded to increase the spate of threats to life and property, a state which has assumed omnipresent and digital dimensions of crime in our society. The aim of this study is to examine Government and the Management of Security Challenges in Nigeria: a case of Akwa Ibom State (1999-2011). Governments, all over the world are accountable for the provision of security and well-being of their citizens through the use of instruments of state power, including defense and security agencies, backed-up by enabling laws. For instance, the 1999 Nigerian constitution outlines the role of government and relationship among levels of government in security management. During the period, Akwa Ibom State had suffered myriad of internal security challenges namely; kidnappings and hostage takings for monetary gains, murder and political assassinations, armed robberies, cult-related criminal activities and subversion. Others include illegal possession of fire arms, insurgency, economic sabotage, oil pipelines and NEPA installations vandalization, arson and fire outbreaks and boundary disputes. This work used descriptive statistics (including charts and tabular analysis) to analyze the role of government in security management. The study however, focused on security challenges arising from dereliction of statutory duties by police personnel due to poor salary, insufficient funding and equipping of security agencies with consequent high crime rates. This work adopted structural functionalist and levels 1, 2, 3 models as theoretical frameworks. The study recommends that government at all levels should motivate, approve good remuneration to security and law enforcement agents, properly fund and equip security agencies to boost their operational capabilities for effective protection of lives and property of the citizens.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER
Title Page – – i
Declaration – – ii
Certification – – iii
Dedication – – iv
Acknowledgements – – v
Abstract – – vi
Table of Contents – – vii
List of Tables – – viii
List of Pictures (Plates) – – xvi
List of Diagrams – – xv
List of Appendices – – xiv
List of Abbreviations – – xvii

INTRODUCTION: – – 1
Background of the Study. – – 1
Statement of the Research Problem. 5
Objectives of the Study. – – 15
Main Objective. – – 15
Subsidiary Objectives. – – 16
Hypotheses. – – 16
Significance of the Study. – 16
Scope and Limitations of the Study. – 20
Definition of Terms. – – 21
Background to the Centralization of Security System in Nigeria. 23
1.8.1 The Negative Effects of Centralized Security System in Nigeria. 27

Objectives and Principles of Security. – 29

2.0 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK.

2.1 Literature Review (Introduction) – 34

2.2 General Literature on State Security Management Mandate. – 34

Comparative Literature on Systems of Government and Countries with Oil-Related Security Challenges. – 68
Unitary or Centralist System of Government – Iran. 68

Federalist or Democratic System of Government – Nigeria. 72

Countries with Crude Oil-related Security Problem- Venezuela and Angola. – 75

Venezuela and Oil-Related Security Challenges. – 76

Angola and Oil-Related Security Challenges. – 84

Nigeria and Oil-Related Security Challenges. – 87

Comparative Discussion. – 89

Case Study Literature Focusing on Crude Oil Discovery and Exploitation as a Major Source of Insecurity in Akwa Ibom.- 92

2.5 Configurative Literature Focusing on the State Security Structures. – 103
2.5.1 The State Security Service (SSS). – 106

2.5.2 The Nigerian Police Force (NPF). – 109
2.6 Ideological Literature on the Central Ideas of Philosophers,
Experts and Scholars of Security. – 111

Summary of the Reviewed Literatures. – 113

Theoretical Framework. – 122

Structural-Functionalist Approach. – 122

Levels 1, 2, 3 of Security Model. – 124

Harmonization of Theories. – 126

2.8.4 Role Expectation of Citizens. – 132
2.9 Historical Background and Objectives of Security. – 135

3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research Methodology. – 139

Research Design. – 140

Population of the Study. – 144

Research Area. – 145

Sources of Data Collection. – 145

Sample and Sampling Techniques. – 146

Research Instrument and Administration. – 146

Validity and Reliability of Test Instrument. – 147

Method of Data Analysis. – 147

4.0 DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS:
4.1 Introduction. – 148
4.2 Data presentation and Interpretation – 150
4.3 Testing of Hypotheses. – 150
4.3.1 Hypothesis I – 150
4.3.2 Evaluation of Hypothesis Qualitatively. – 152
4.3.3 Evaluation of Hypothesis I – 153
4.3.4 Hypothesis II – 163
4.3.5 Evaluation of Hypothesis II – 164
4.3.6 Hypothesis III – 174
4.3.7 Evaluation of Hypothesis III – 176
4.3.8 Hypothesis IV – 181
4.3.9 Evaluation of Hypothesis IV – 183
4.3.10 Discussion of Findings. – 205

5.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS:
5.1 Summary. – 212
5.2 Conclusions. – 218
5.3 Recommendations. – 220

BIBLIOGRAPHY – 229
JOURNALS – 239
NEWSPAPERS – 241
HOLY BIBLE – 243
APPENDIX 1 – 244
APPENDIX 2 – 245
APPENDIX 3 – 249
APPENDIX 4 – 252
APPENDIX 5 – 256
APPENDIX 6 – 258
APPENDIX 7 – 260
APPENDIX 8 – 262

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