AVAILABILITY & UTILIZATION OF GOVERNMENT HEALTH CENTRES & ITS IMPLICATIONS IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Limitation of the Study
1.9 Definition of Terms
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
METHOD AND PROCEDURE
3.1 Design of the Study
3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique
3.3 The Research Instrument
3.4 Validity and Reliability of Instrument
Date collection procedure
4.1 Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of date
5.3 Suggestions for further Research
- Background of the study
The School health services refer to the health care delivery system that is operational within a school or college. These services aim at promoting and maintaining the health of school children so as to give them a good start in life. In addition, these services seek to enable children benefit optimally from their school learning experience. Globally the number of children reaching school age is estimated to be 1.2 billion children (18 % of the world’s population) and rising. In many homes across the world, children start to attend school from as early as 5–6 months because mothers have to wean early to return to their work place. The purpose of the school health services is to help children at school to achieve the maximum health possible for them to obtain full benefit from their education.School health services deal with health appraisals, control of communicable diseases, record keeping and supervision of the health of school children and personnel.
It is the aspect that concerns itself with the evaluating the health of an individual objectively. Health appraisals afford the school authorities the opportunity to detect signs and symptoms of common diseases as well as signs of emotional disturbances that could impede the learning activities of children. School health services are both preventive and curative services and it helps in providing information to parents and school personnel on the health status of school children. It also provides advisory and counselling services for the school community and parents. It include pre-entry medical screening, routine health screening/examination, school health records, sick bay, first aid and referral services. Other services rendered include health observation (which involves physical inspection of the physiology and behaviours of children), health examinations (screening tests and medical diagnosis) and health records (keeping of records of the health histories of children).
A National study of the school health system in Nigeria by the Federal Ministries of Health and Education revealed that only 14 % of head teachers indicated that pre-enrolment medical examination was mandatory in their schools and 30 % of the students had low body mass index (BMI). It further indicated that 30 % of students have low BMI and the common health conditions that contribute to absenteeism include fever (56 %), headache (43 %), stomach ache (29 %), cough/catarrh (38 %) and malaria (40 %). There is a dearth of school health clinics in Nigeria and where they exist, the services are not comprehensive enough or not organized to meet the needs of the pupils. Studies have shown that primary school children in Nigeria were not provided with basic health examination services and pre-entrance medical examinations thus baseline health information about them was absent.
There is also a lack of routine medical examination which would have picked up deviations from normal which make early referrals impossible and children vulnerable to preventable diseases. School health has been described as the neglected component of Primary Health Care in Africa. Since almost every small community has a primary school, in those communities without health centres, it should be possible to use the primary school as a centre for primary health care delivery not just for the pupils but also for the community. A well organized and properly executed school health programme can be used to create safe environment for school children.
School health programme can become one of the strategies for promoting primary health care services. All efforts at addressing the school health programme in Nigeria have remained largely at policy level, with minimal implementation. Where implementation has been attempted the emphasis has been on outside rather than within the schools. This study was therefore designed to determine the school health services available and its practices in primary schools in Ogun state Nigeria. This has implications in the primary health care of the school children and reduction in incidence of preventable diseases early in life.The goal of primary health care (PHC) was to provide accessible health for all by the year 2000 and beyond. Unfortunately, this is yet to be achieved in Nigeria and seems to be unrealistic in the next decade.
The PHC aims at providing people of the world with the basic health services. Though PHC centers were established in both rural and urban areas in Nigeria with the intention of equity and easy access, regrettably, the rural populations in Nigeria are seriously underserved when compared with their urban counterparts. About two-thirds of Nigerians reside in rural (http.//www.fao.org/countryprofiles/ index.asp) areas therefore they deserve to be served with all the components of PHC. Primary health care, which is supposed to be the bedrock of the country’s health care policy, is currently catering for less than 20% of the potential patients (Guptaet al., 2004).