effect of skill competency in attainment of high grade in west africa senior school certificate examinations.

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This project work was carried out on the effect of skill competency in the attainment of high grade in West African Senior Secondary Certificate Examination. It was carried out in order to find out the impact of skills on student performance. The work was base on five research questions. The population was up to 30 respondents from different schools and Waec. The questionnaires were made up of an instrument of research, 30 copies of the questionnaires were distributed and returned and data collected was analyzed. To get the results in the research, mean table was used. The findings from this research showed that skills competency affects high grade.

Title page
Approval page
Table of contents

1.0 Background of study
1.1 Statement of the problem
1.2 Purpose of the study
1.3 Research question
1.4 Scope of the study
1.5 Significance of the study

Review of Related Literature
2.0 Introduction
2.1 Impact of ICT on the secretarial performance
2.2 The secretarial skills required in the use of ICT
2.3 Secretarial posting and careers in the public service
2.4 Secretarial duties and skills
2.5 Summary of the related literature review

3.0 Research methodology
3.1 Research design
3.2 Area of study
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sample and sampling techniques
3.5 Validity of instrument
3.6 Administration of instrument
3.7 Technique for data analysis

Presentation of Data Analysis
4.0 Analysis of data
4.1 Discussion of findings

5.0 Summary of findings conclusion and recommendation
5.1 Restatement of the problem
5.2 Summary of research findings
5.3 Conclusion
5.4 Recommendation
5.5 Implications
5.6 Suggestions for further research



1.0 Background of the Study
A skill is the learned capacity to carry out pre-determined
results often with the minimum outlay of time, energy, or both.
Skills can often be divided into domain-general and domain-
specific skills. For example, in the domain of work, some
general skills would include time management, teamwork and
leadership, self motivation and others, whereas domain-specific
skills would be useful only for a certain job.
Skill usually requires certain environmental stimuli and
situations to assess the level of skill being shown and used.
The shift from the teacher-centred method of teaching science
to child centred activity based method which encourages and
develops in the child the spirit of inquiry; an attempt to make
students fully aware as well as understand the ways scientists
work; and also the equipping and preparing students for their
possible careers in science and technology led to the
development of process skills (Akinbobola, 2006).
It is worth noting that for science teaching to be
meaningful and relevant, it must adequately reflect the nature

of science. That is, it must not only be process-oriented, but it
should also emphasize the products of science. It should also
promote affective reaction to science and stress the attitudes
such as honesty, open and critical mindedness, curiosity,
suspended judgment and humility which characterize scientists
and the scientific enterprise (Akinbobola & Ado, 2007).
Skills(such as science process skills) have been described
as mental and physical abilities and competencies which serve
as tools needed for the effective study of science and
technology as well as problem solving, individual and societal
development (Nwosu & Okeke, 1995), this will also go a long
way in improving students grade. The American Association for
the Advancement of Science (AAAS) classified the science
process skills into fifteen (Bybee et al., 1989). These are:
observing, measuring, classifying, communicating, predicting,
inferring, using number, using space/time relationship,
questioning, controlling variables, hypothesizing, defining
operationally, formulating models, designing experiment and
interpreting data.

According to Ango (1992), process skills can be classified
into two categories as basic and integrated process skills. The
basic (simpler) process skills provide a foundation for learning
the integrated (more complex) skills. Basic science processes
are vital for science learning and concept formation at the
primary and junior secondary school levels. More difficult and
integrated science process skills are more appropriate at the
secondary and tertiary school levels for the formation of
models, experimenting and inference. Hence both basic and
integrated science process skills are relevant and appropriate
at the senior secondary schools level for the attainment of high
grade in Nigeria.
According to Bybee et al. (1989) and Ango (1992), the
basic science process skills comprised of observing, measuring,
classifying, communicating, inferring, using numbers, using
space/time relationship and questioning while integrated
science process skills are controlling and manipulating variable,
hypothesizing, defining operationally, formulating models,
designing experiment and interpreting data.

For example, physics practical skills are science process
skills. They are taught as part and parcel of the physics
curriculum. Science process skills are cognitive and
psychomotor skills employed in problem solving. They are the
skills which sciences use in problem-identification, objective
inquiry, data gathering, transformation, interpretation and
Science process skills can be acquired and developed
through training such as are involved in science practical
activities. They are the aspect of science learning which is
retained after cognitive knowledge has been forgotten. Using
science process skills is an important indicator of transfer of
knowledge which is necessary for problem-solving and
functional living.
The skills on the graph practical work cannot be
completed without creativity. Practical work is not just putting
the apparatus together when seen, but it needs planning,
designing a problem, creating a new approach and procedure
and also putting familiar things together in the new
arrangement. This implies that the knowledge of creativity

exhibited by candidates in any practical class helps them to
manipulate some practical equipment.
According to Giddings & Fraser (1988), achieving the
objectives of science practical work depend a lot on the mode
of assessment of laboratory work adopted by the teachers and
examination bodies. According to them, the mode of
assessment directly influences teachers’ teaching methods,
students’ learning styles and attitudes towards practical
The West African Examinations Council (WAEC) makes use
of practical test/examination to assess students’ acquisition of
various physics practical skills. In these tests, students are
required to carry out certain physics practical activities
following some given instructions. The scores of the students
obtained through the marking of their practical works indirectly
indicate the levels of physics practical process skills they could
demonstrate during the practical examination. This mode of
assessment is also adopted by physics teachers who prepare
the students for Senior Secondary School Certificate
Examination (SSSCE).

This mode of assessment influences the teaching methods
adopted by teachers. Also, students’ learning style is influenced
in such a way that they always try to find certain correct
responses or answers irrespective of the procedures adopted.
The process approach method of teaching science is meant to
foster inquiry and manipulative skills in students and
discourage rote learning.
This method embraces other methods of science teaching
and is mainly activity based, superior to those in which the
students are not actively involved in learning process
(Akinbobola, 2008). This reason has made the West African
Examinations Council (WAEC) and bodies that conduct Senior
Secondary School Certificate Examination (SSSCE) to stipulate
that practical work should form the basis of teaching. During
examination, the practical work is also assessed separately.
Currently, physics being one of the physical science
taught in senior secondary schools is taught both in theory and
practical. In both internal and external examinations, practical
physics is assessed separately as an integral part of the

The basic skills competencies are useful in science and
non-science situation while the integrated skills are the working
behaviour of the scientists and technologists. Thus, both basic
and integrated skills are relevant and appropriate for the
attainment of high grade in wasc subjects in senior secondary
schools level in Nigeria.
Hence, there is need to find out the Effect of process skills
and also to identify the science process skills inherent in the
West African Senior Secondary School Certificate (WASSSC).

The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of
skills competencies in the attainment of high grade in the West
African Senior Secondary School Certificate (WASSSC)
examinations in Nigeria.
The study is designed to achieve the following objectives:
(1) To investigate the science process skills included in the
West African senior secondary school certificate examinations
in Nigeria;

(2) To compare the basic and integrated process skills included
in the West African senior secondary school certificate physics
practical examinations in Nigeria.

The study will be of tremendous significance to different
secondary schools in Nigeria. It would aid in the enhancement
of the students’ level of competency.

This research study will provide answers to the following
research questions.
1. What is the skill competencies required of secondary
school students?
2. What process skills competencies are needed from a top
flight student?
3. What are the various subject skill competencies a student
should possess?
4. What are the percentages of basic and integrated process
skills included West African school?

5. What is the level of skills competencies in our secondary

This study will focus on the effect of skill competencies in
attainment of high grade in the West African school certificate.
The study will cover the most secondary school student.
Questionnaire and interview will form the instrument to be
used in this study.


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