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FACTORS AFFECTING ACQUISITION OF VOCATIONAL SKILLS AMONG YOUTH LEARNERS IN MARANDA DIVISION SIAYA COUNTY
This study seeks to investigate the factors that affect acquisition of skills among the youth in Maranda Division Siaya County. It intends to answer questions such as what is the attitude of the learners towards vocational skills offered to them? To what extent are the learning resources at the training centers adequate for assisting in the acquisition of the vocational skills? What are the different courses offered in these vocational training centers? What is the economic status of the parents or guardians of the learners?
How does the qualification of the trainees or tutors affect the learners’ acquisition of skills? To what extent are the learners satisfied with vocational training? Finally what are the factors that influence the acquisition of vocational skills?
The study will hopefully help curriculum developers of technical education to come up with a friendlier and manageable curriculum for the youths in vocational training centers. Through the findings of this study the poor attitude towards vocational courses by students, teachers and parents will most likely change.
The research will adopt a descriptive survey design which will involve asking as large group questions about a particular issue.
The target population will comprise of eight vocational and training centers in Maranda Division Siaya County. A stratified random sampling will be used in this study. Questionnaires with open and closed ended questions will be used.
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.0 Background To the Study
1.1 Statement of the Problem Purpose of the Study
1.2 Objectives of the Study
1.3 Research Questions
1.5 Significance of the StudyLimitations of the Study
1.6 Delimitations of the Study
1.7 Basic Assumption
1.8 Organization of the Study
1.9 Definition of operational Terms
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Attitudes towards Vocational Skill Acquisition
2.2 Relevance of Learning Resources in supporting Skill Acquisition
2.3 Courses offered at the Vocational Centers
2.4 Staff and Administration Development at Vocational Training Centers
2.5 Satisfaction with learning and jobs
2.6 .0 Theories of Job Satisfaction
2.6.1 Herzberg’s Theory
2.6.2 Vroom’s Theory
2.7 Parent’s Involvement in the Learning process of their children
2.8.0 Other factors that Influence Skills Acquisition
2.8.1 Institutional related factors affecting acquisition
2.8.2 Students related factors affecting skill acquisition
2.8.3 Examination related factors affecting Skill acquisition
2.8.4 2.8.4 Teachers related factors affecting acquisition of skills
2.9 Summary of the reviewed literature
2.10 Conceptual framework
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2. Target population
3.3 Sample size and Sampling Techniques
3.4 Data Collection Instrument
3.5 Validity of the Instruments
3.7 Data Collection Procedure
3.8 Data Analysis Techniques
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS
4.1. Demographic Details
4.2. Attitude of Learners Towards Vocational Skills Offered to them
4.3. Adequacy of the Learning Resources used at the Vocational Centres
4.4. Courses Offered at the Vocational Centres
4.5. Economic Status of Parents of Students at Vocational Centres
4.6. Qualification of the Trainers/ Instructors at the Vocational Centres
4.7. Level of Satisfaction
4.8. Other Factors Affecting Acquisition of Vocational Skills
4.8.2. Drop Out Rate
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.3. Suggestions for Further Research
Appendix A: Introduction letter to heads/manaers of vocational centers in Maranda division Siaya county
Appendix B. Questionnaire for heads/managers of vocational centers
Appendix C. Questionnaire for the vocational facilitators/ teachers
Appendix D. Questionnaire for students (Currently enrolled in technical institution)
Table 1: Conceptual Framework
Table 2: Demographic Details of the Respondents by Category
Table 3: Physical Facilities’ used to Enhance Learning at the Vocational Centres
Table 4: Physical Facilities used to Enhance Learning
Table 5: Professional Qualifications of Vocational Instructors
Table 6: Academic Qualification of Vocation Instructor
Table 7: Other Factors Affecting Acquisition of Vocational Skills
LIST OF FIGURES
Pie Chart 1: Attitude of Learners Towards Vocational Skills Offered to them
Pie Chart 2: Attitude of Learners Towards Vocational Education asExpressed by Teachers
Pie Chart 3: Different Courses Offered to earners’
Pie Chart 4: Finance Provision by Different Bodies
Pie Chart 5: Learners Level of Satisfaction with Vocational Training
Pie Chart 6: Instructors Comfortability with Courses they are Teaching
LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
USA United States of America
VC Vocational Centers
TVET Technical and Vocational Education Training
YPS Youth Polytechnics
TIQET Totally Integrated Quality Education and Training
WB World Bank
MSE Micro and Small Business Enterprise
MPE Master Plan on Education
BOG Board of Governors
DETB District Educational and Technical Board
UK United Kingdom
TEP Technical Educational Program
KCSE Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education
KNEC Kenya National Examination Council
KTTC Kenya Technical Training College
2.0 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Vocational education is the acquisition of specific skills for self employment or career skills instruction for example cookery, dressmaking, carpentry, masonry as well as working in the industries. This type of education is offered to meet needs of individuals and society as well. The ability of individuals are utilized to the fullest Tum (1996) .Vocational education is one of the national development strategies in many societies. It creates a great impact on human resource development, productivity and economic growth Van Ark (1992).
Vocational training has been there throughout history. Every society had its craftsmen. In the United States it became popular after 1880. The courses that sprung under vocational education were industrial training, book keeping, stenography (short hand) and commercial work. The courses were offered both in private and public institutions. Trade schools in the United States of America (USA) at that time were like Copper Union, Tuskegee Institute and Pratt Institute.
In the United States there were several laws that helped to improve the work force in industries and made sure that there was vocational training for the economically challenged youth. The laws were known as Manpower Development Training Law, Vocational and Applied Technology law and Vocational Education law. The Dutch schools also paid attention to the provision of Vocational Education.
They targeted the age of the learners at 14 – 16 years. In Italy, vocational education began in the 16th century Knoll (1993) .The Italian architects sought to make their vocational education professional.
Earlier on the youth had received training as builders and stone masons. This did not make them meet the demand of art and sciences. By the end of 18th century the engineering profession closely related to architecture had been established and was being incorporated in to new technical and industrial colleges in Italy.
In Africa there are different systems of vocational education from country to country. Training is provided in both private and public polytechnics, enterprises and apprenticeship training centers. The West Africa apprenticeship departments offer the largest opportunity for technical and vocational education.
Youths in Burkina Faso enter vocational training at the end of primary school after eight years of education. Unlike in Nigeria where they enter training at the end of lower or junior school for secondary learners. Botswana, Namibia, Zambia and Tanzania recently passed acts of parliament that established a council of training and vocational education which is charged with responsibility of skill development in the country. The Senegal Vocational education is underdeveloped. There are no clear strategies regarding its future Kudaya (1989).The government of Mali has benefited from positive institutional enrolment plan due to establishment of training fund.
In Kenya there were proposal in the Willoughby report of 1949 for the establishment of a technical institute in Nairobi. This gave rise to Royal Technical College which later became part of the University of East Africa.This is the present University of Nairobi. By 1961 Kenya Polytechnic started offering vocational skills. Other institutes that were established were Mombasa institute of Muslim Education which became a National Polytechnic in 1972 (Bogonko 1992) Kenya Technical Training College (KTTC) started later.
It trained teachers for technical and vocational skills to be taught in secondary schools. Jomo Kenyatta College of Agriculture and Technology was founded. In 1988 it was upgraded to a University college offering agriculture and engineering. A polytechnic training youths in vocational skills was opened in Eldoret before the end of 1987. However, these colleges were for those who passed secondary education..
Between 1966 and 1970 youth polytechnics were started in Kenya Eshiwani (1985). In 1971 there were more than fifty three village polytechnics training youths in vocational skills like carpentry. The training aimed at giving school leavers practical skills which could enable them to support themselves through self employment.
In the late 1990s the village polytechnic centers seemed to lose drive and significance. Many colleges started as polytechnics were then converted to colleges such as Strathmore College of Accounts and Information Technology.
In Maranda Division Siaya County, unemployment rate among the youth is high. This applies to those who have attended training. An indicator of this problem is like grouping of youths around the market centers especially at the time they should be working. These groups are always busy discussing politics; some of these youths loiter around the urban centers. Vocational centers (VC) are both public and private.
Privately owned ones are like saloons, driving schools and small Jua kali sectors. Public centers are like Kapiyo, Ndira and Aila youth polytechnics. Arrow in Majiwa offers vocational skills in weaving and pottery. The resources in these centers are not adequate. They are not enough for trainees and they are old as well. There is also a problem of understaffing. Trainers are always few in numbers.
The attitude of learners seems to hinder skill acquisition. After they have graduated from these centers they still cannot perform the skills well. Masons who are newly graduated have to work with a specialist who has been in the job for a long time. He will have to depend on instructions and guidance. Tailors and dressmakers are not able to sew a good dress, trousers or a blouse. A salonist from training is not able to weave recent hair styles. This shows that there is a problem among the youth in skill acquisition.
1.1Statement of the Problem
From the background it comes out clearly that vocational training has a problem. Mackey report of 1981 recommended the conversion of secondary technical schools to tertiary institutions. This fueled the under utilization of the technical training institutes. Youth polytechnics were left to die. The management and professional development of youth polytechnics and other vocational training institute suffer neglect by the nation and local communities.
A number of out of school youth are observed to join vocational training centers but after a short while they loiter around urban centers and are very idle. This study therefore is an investigation of the factors affecting vocational skills among the youth learners in eight vocational centers in Maranda Division Siaya County.
1.2 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to investigate factors that affect the acquisition of vocational skills among youth learners in Maranda Division Siaya County. Is also hoped to come up with factors that should be considered to improve skill acquisition among the youth learners.
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The study will be guided by the following objectives
i) To establish the attitude of the learners towards vocational skills offered to them
ii) To examine the adequacy of the learning resources used at the centers
iii) To identify the types of courses offered at the centers
iv) To establish the economic status of the learners parents and guardians
v) To asses the qualification of the trainers or tutors at the vocational centers.
vi) To determine the level of satisfaction among the learners towards vocational training.
vii) To identify other factors influencing acquisition of vocational skills
The study will try to answer the following questions
- What is the attitude of the learners towards vocational skills offered?
- To what extent are the learning resources at the training centers adequate for assisting in the acquisition of the vocation skills?
- What are the different courses offered in these vocational training?
- What is the economic status of the parents or guardians of the learners?
- How does the qualification of the trainees or tutors affect the learners’ acquisition of skills?
- To what extent are the learners satisfied with vocational training?
- What are the factors that influence the acquisition of vocational skills?
1.5 Significance of the study
The study was carried out with the hope of assisting TVET policy makers, implementers and curriculum developers in recognizing the factors that affect the acquisition of vocational skills among the youth. It is also hoped that this study will help future researchers in identifying priority areas in which to carry out more research on TVE institutions concerning skills acquisition. Hopefully it will also be used in effective planning and policy formulation in regard to vocational education VET in Kenya.
The area is expansive. This will make it hard for the researcher to reach the sampled centers and respondents in time. It will therefore lead to a more costly study. Some respondents will be very indifferent and will not respond to the questionnaires in time. This will force the researcher to make many trips to some schools or villages to get questionnaires back. This is an added cost. The scope of the study will only be limited to one division due to resources. There is a high absenteeism from the learners so this will make the researcher prolong the data collection time.
1.11 Delimitations of the Study
Below are the delimitations of this study.
The study will be confined to eight vocational training centers within Maranda Division Siaya County. Maranda Division is chosen due to financial status of the researcher who is self sponsored and resides in the division.
1.12 Basic Assumption
The following are the assumptions of the study
- That the selection of various skills is done voluntarily by the learners themselves and that they are generally interested in the courses they are taking.
- That there are other crucial factors that affect acquisition despite the instructional strategies and instructors’ competency.
c. That learners take their training very seriously and are committed to acquiring specific skills that they have enrolled for.
1.13 Organization of the study
This study is divided into five chapters.
Chapter one consists of background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, objective of the study, research questions, significance of the study, limitation of the study, delimitation of the study, basic assumptions, organization of the study and definition of significant terms.
Chapter two consists of literature review under the following sub-topics: the attitude towards vocational skills acquisition, relevance of learning resources in supporting skills acquisition, courses at the vocational center, staff and administration development at vocational centers, satisfaction with training and jobs, parents’ involvement in the learning process of their children.
Other factors that influence skill acquisition, summary of the reviewed literature and conceptual framework.
Chapter three describes research methodology used in the study with the topic; research design, target population, sample size and sample techniques, instruments for data collection, validity of the research instruments, reliability of the instruments, piloting, data collection procedures and methods of data analysis.
Chapter four consists of data analysis and discussion of the findings.
Chapter five gives us a summary of research findings, conclusions, recommendations and suggestions for further research in the area. The last section of the project consists of the bibliography and appendices.
1.14 Definition of Operational Terms
Vocational training – giving skills and knowledge that is needed in order to do a particular job.
Attitude – how one thinks of or feels about an act towards objects or ideas.
Competence – the ability ,skills, techniques and knowledge that vocational trainees require to
perform the skills effectively.
Skills – special ability to perform cognitive, motor and affective acts particularly gained
through learning and practice.
Training – systematic development of the knowledge, attitudes and skills necessary for a
Person to be able to perform adequately a job or a task whose demands can be
reasonably well identified in advance.
Knowledge – facts, principals, generalization, awareness and sensitivities specific to real life
Physical facilities – classrooms, sewing machines, vehicles, computers, and building tools like
Plump bobs, tapes, planes and scissors.