DESIGN OF DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR SPEED CONTROL USING PULSE WIDTH MODULATION (PWM) TECHNIQUE
Next to stepper motors, the Permanent Magnet DC Motor (PMDC) is the most commonly used type of small direct current motor available producing a continuous rotational speed that can be easily controlled. Small DC motors ideal for use in applications were speed control is required such as in small toys, models, robots and other such electronics circuits.
A DC motor consist basically of two parts, the stationary body of the motor called the “Stator” and the inner part which rotates producing the movement called the “Rotor”. For D.C. machines the rotor is commonly termed the “Armature”.
Generally in small light duty DC motors the stator consists of a pair of fixed permanent magnets producing a uniform and stationary magnetic flux inside the motor giving these types of motors their name of “permanent-magnet direct-current” (PMDC) motors.
The motors armature consists of individual electrical coils connected together in a circular configuration around its metallic body producing a North-Pole then a South-Pole then a North-Pole etc, type of field system configuration.
The current flowing within these rotor coils producing the necessary electromagnetic field. The circular magnetic field produced by the armatures windings produces both north and south poles around the armature which are repelled or attracted by the stator’s permanent magnets producing a rotational movement around the motors central axis as shown.