ANALYSIS OF THE UTILIZATION OF NATIONAL PROGRAMME ON IMMUNIZATION IN IKPOBA OKHA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
The study was designed to investigate the analysis of the utilization of national Programme on immunization in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State. To achieve the aim of the study, were tested. Questionnaire were designed and distributed to 200 mothers descriptive research designed was used data were collected and analyzed based on stated objectives of the research, it revealed that from the information media of mothers who utilized NPI wide publicity had been given through radio and television jingle. It concluded that the source of information and knowledge about NPI was mainly through radio and television. This is was therefore recommended that the state government and local government should give propriety to grassroots campaign about the advantages of immunization.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Background of the study
Statement of problem
Purpose of study
Significance of study
Delimitation of the study
Limitation of the study
Definition of terms
Review of related literature
Population of the study
Sample and sampling technique
Validity of the instrument
Reliability of the instruments
Administration of the instrument
Method of data analysis
Data Analysis and Discussion of Result
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Nigeria is a signatory to the survival, production and development of children which was articulated at 49th world health assembly in 1988. This was further reinforced by the world summit for children held in New York in 1990. Thus, this declaration established challenges for global immunization. Therefore, the federal government of Nigeria through the federal ministry of Health has pursued an active immunization programme and has given necessary priority to its immunization programme. The expanded programme on immunization (EPI) was initiated in 1979. However, in view of the critical need to enhance the effectiveness of immunization which was fast declining and to meet global challenges of immunization, the (EPM was restructured in 1997 and it was named national programme on immunization (NPI) and established as a parastatals of Federal Ministry of Health by (Decree 12 of 1997). The NPI is charged with the responsibility of effectively controlling through provision of vaccines and immunization. The occurrence of the following disease tuberculosis, polio-myelitis, diphtheria, pretties, neonatal, tetanus, measles-yellow fever, cerebra spinal meningnitis (CSM), hepatitis B and other diseases as epidemiological evidence may deem necessary.
In Nigeria, the three levels of government (Federal, State, and Local) are important partners, committed to the formulation of strategies and support for the implementation of an effective immunization programme. National programme on immunization is 5 years. National strategic plan, 2001-2005. It adopts the regional and sub-regional vision and strategies for morbidity and mortality reduction vaccine preventable disease while polio eradication remains the major focus given the set targets, strengthening of the immunization services delivery system will be a key component to be addressed in order to improve routine immunization serves. Other area of focus include update of current immunization policy to include safety of injection and waste disposal management issue, training of immunization personnel rehabilitation and expansion of the cold chain vaccine supply and distribution, strengthening of surveillance system advocacy and social mobilization collaboration with the private health sector will also be fostered.
The later agency coordinating committee (ICC) will expand to include more members and will take part in mobilization resources as well as monitoring plan implementation and fund utilization yearly target for immunization coverage have been set that will allow evaluation of the progress made. The estimate budget for the implementation of the planned activities is US $678,501,115. However, the annual plans derived from the five year plan will provide more accurate figure for the yearly implementation of the programme activities. Immunization is the process of protecting the body against diseases by means of vaccines or serums. San, C. A. (1987) every living thing on this planet has natural immunity by birth in humans new born babies receive the natural immunity in form of antibodies from mother. These antibodies are transferred to the infant through breast milk however, through early infancy. Thus, it is very necessary for everybody to have immunity against the crippling deadly diseases, immunization is a way to stimulate the body to produce immunity to an offending agent (bacteria or virus). This form of immunity is referred to as acqui8red immunity. There are two types of immunization namely; active immunization and passive immunization.
Active Immunization: this involves the use of vaccine it is another term for vaccines. A vaccine contains substance that stimulate the body immune system to produce antibody project, then if he or she is exposed to the actual disease causing organism. Vaccine contain substance that are powerful enough to trigger antibody production but that do not actually causes diseases. Vaccine have been developed against many diseases like chicken pox, diohtheria, influenza, measles, meningitis, mumps, poliomyelitis, rabies, tetanus, whooping cough, yellow fever, rubella (German measles) etc. most vaccines are injected into the body but that of sabin polio vaccine is taken orally. A single dose of some vaccine provides life-long protection against infection other vaccine requires several dose to produce immunity and then must reinforced at regular intervals with booster dose.
Passive immunization involves the injection of serum into the body. A serum contain antibodies that have been formed in another person or an antitrial to provides almost immediate protection, from infection, but this immunity last only a few months because the antibody gradually disappears. Physicians give serums to people against disease, people to which vaccine have not been developed. Great snide have been made on NPI activities inspite of above, Alakiya and Sofolue (1980) and Ogunmekan (1976) reported a low level of involvement by the public, essentially mothers about the national programme on immunization, hence, the prevalence of the deadly disease causing a very high mortality rate among infants. Thus, many problem faced by NPI which include low level of awareness, inadequate vaccine, poor funding, lack of adequate publicity and coverage, inadequate staffing and clinic to mention but a few.
The research intend to find out the extent of utilization of the program Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area, Edo State and ascertain if the above reason also apply to the area research it is hoped that the result to this study will go a long way to reducing if not eliminating the problem area.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The federal government, state and local government earmarked the year 2005 for the eradication of the deadly communicable disease. The researcher hopes to x-ray the extent of utilization of the national programme on immunization in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State. The issue for infant mortality is still very rampant and this has passed lots of concern about the efficiency or otherwise of this study, entails the determination of the level of utilization of the NPI in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area.
This study attempted to answer the question pose below;
- What is the socio-economic status of mothers who participate in NPI?
- What is the educational level of mothers and utilization of NIP?
- What is the knowledge of types of immunization do they have?
- What is the information media of mothers who utilized NPI?
- There is no significant relationship between economic status of mother who participate in NPI in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State.
- There is no significant relationship between educational level of mother and utilization of NPI.
- There is no significant relationship on the knowledge of the types of immunization in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State.
- There is no significant relationship between the information media of mothers who utilized NPI in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to assess and determine the extent of utilization of NPI in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area and also identified the problems affecting the programme and children’s health as far as the communicable disease are concerned in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area. The objective of this study include finding out/examining;
- The level of utilization of the national programme on immunization in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State.
- How many mothers are in the community.
- The number of children immunized
- The number of children the mothers have
- Suggesting ways of improving the rate of immunization of children in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area
- The reason for immunization
- The believe of mothers about immunization
- Ascertaining the socio-economic status of mother who participated in the national programme on immunization
- The view of others did not participate in the national programme on immunization.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The world health organization (WHO) pronounced using the federal ministry of health by degree 12 of 1997 to totally eradicate the communicable disease by 2005. Therefore the importance of this study lies in the fact that children make the community. This societies and the world, children should therefore be ensured by parents not just the government duty along but for the children to be immunized against these deadly communicable diseases namely tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, diphtheria, pretties, neonatal, tetanus, measles, yellow fever, cerebra spina meningitis (CSM) hepatitis B and other diseases as epidemiological. According to national immunization policy (May, 2003).
The study hope to highlight the extent of utilization of national programme on immunization in the area of study, this may help the federal ministry of health to intensify in improving the programme.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Some terms and abbreviation used in this study are defined below to enhance easy understanding.
NPI: National programme immunization.
Immunization: Makes immune against diseases.
Poliomyelitis: A diseases of infants that usually paralyzed the legs.
DPT: Diphtheria, peruses and tetanus
OPV: Oral polio vaccines
CSM: Cerebra-spinal meningitis
VF: Yellow fever
EPL: Extended programme on immunization