examination of jollof rice served in hotels for pathogenic organisms

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This project work is aimed at examination of jollof rice served in hotels for pathogenic organisms and to find out possible pathogenic organisms in the food. Samples were collected from the hotels and were brought to the laboratory for analysis. The sample were homogenized and serial dilution of the sample was made out using 5ml sterile pipette and test tubes. The dilution were the cultured on different media, macconkey agar, and Nutrient agar, discrete bacteria colonies were observed and  each colony was gram stained, the bacteria isolation were staphylococcus aureus, bacillus, Escherichia coli, these micro organism isolated are pathogenic and are toxin when ingested in contamination food.




Background of the study

Aim and objective

Significance of study


Scope of study

Limitation of study



Literature review.                                                                                        

Composition of rice and its requirement

Source of contamination

Pathogenic bacterial organism that are responsible for contamination of Jollof rice

Some micro organism responsible for jollof rice spoilage

Jollof  rice spoilage

Factors that influence  microbiological activity of food

Prevention of food pathogenic organisms


Material and methods

Sample collection

Media used and sterilization method

Isolation methods n

The serial dilution technique

Plating  and incubation condition

Gram reaction









1.0              INTRODUCTION


The intention of food safely is to prevent food poisoning (the transmission of disease through food and to maintain the who lesomeness of the food product through all stages of processing, until it is finally extern. No one doubts the importance of food in our lives. All active living organisms must have a constant serviced of energy  this  energy may be supplied by materials a cell or organism has stored internally (e.g  our fat  or carbohydrate) or it may come from an external source in the environment food (Nutrition) supplies two major component of life, ENERGY and the chemical  building blood of life, (Bor).

Energy is required for the various enzymatic reaction that require an input of energy for the reaction, the catalyze for example the movement of the muscles on our legs during a race or in their intestine as we digest our intest meal on to draw air into lungs for breathing all requires energy.

Food  also supplies the structural material required for living organisms to make new macromolecules for repair of damage structure  or for new construction such as the manufacturing of off springs,. Apart from it vital function of substaing life, food is referred to as labours of pathogenic  organisms, if not prepared in a tidy and clean environment. This has been recognized as a problem in some restinants in Enugu, concerned with providing proper food for consumers.

Pathogenic organisms  exist in two major categories. INTOXICATIONS –INFECTION. Intoxication is a result of ingesting toxins produced by microbes that have grown on the food prior to it being eaten. Infection is the result of the food serving as a forniute that carries an infection pathogen deep into the juicy recesses of a body where it is able to gain a foot . generally food pathogenic organism results from contamination of food and the subsequent growth of food pathogenic organisms.

Food poisoning out breaks are of recognized by the sudden  on set of  illness with a shout period of    time among many individual who have eaten or drunk one or more food (Jollodf rice) in common. Single cases are difficult to identify unless in botulism for example there are distinct symptom. Food pathogenic organism may be one of the most common cause of actuate illness, yet cases and difficult to identify vnlesssas in Botulision for example

There are distant Symptom. Food pathogenic organism may be one of the most common causes of acute illness. Yet cases and outbreaks are generally under recognized and under-requited.   The number of bacterial present : food (jolloff rice) may be used to determined whether or not the food (jolloff rice ) has been handled correctly. Sources, Vehicles and Reuters of continuations

Some disease that are spread by bacteria that enters the body in food (jolloff rice) can multiply at an amazing rate when they are provided with warmth and moisture, (especially at room temperature) Our food can become an ideal home for then. Clean food (jolloff rice ) can be contaminated by bacterial from four main sources.
Fig I

*   The people present in the workplace and their clothing.

  • other  food that is already contaminated.
  • Dirty kitchen or work premises
  • Insect and vermin.

Some time, harmful bacterial  pass directly from the source  of  high risk food, but usually they rely on other things to transfer them to food. These  things are called  vehicles. Ihekoronye A. I. And Ngoddy P.O (1979).

Indirect  contamination using an intermediate  vehicle is the most common e.g the movement  of bateria from the intestine of a food handler to food via their hands after using the toilet. Where contamination  is via for example a culting board, this is known is  cross contamination,  the path that bacteria use to more from the sources to the food is know is the Route.

The privation of pathogenic organism in food, in most cases of food poisoning chain of events takes place and if we are to reduce the incidence of illness, the chain must be broken.

*          Destory those  bacteria that are present in the food. The problem of food sanitation.
*          Preventing any bacteria present in food from multiply.
*          Protecting food  (Jolloff rice) form contamination .
There  are different ways of breaking the food poisoning chain.

  • Inspecting all food and  washing fruit and vegetable before preparation.
  • Using good personal hygiene practice always.
  •   Not coupling or sneezing over or around the food.
  • Keeping covered as much as possible in destroy those bacteria with in food (Jollof rice) An adequate cooking food ensuring that a minimum internal cooking temperature of 800c is reacted. The heating processing such as pasteurization sterilization or caming. A combination of a suitable temperature and sufficient time is always required to destroy bacteria. The time and temperature required depends on the particular organism (e.g spores of clostridium perfringen are much more  heat resistant than salmonella bacteria).

In food safety programmes the hazard analysis critical control point (HACC?), this is recommended that every food business adopt the HACCP approach to identify all potential hazards and control them before they result in problems.

In setting up a HACCP system will involve the following

  • Set up a HACCP team of those people who fully understand the product.
  • Draw up flow chart that define all stages in the preparation process, from raw materials though to consumption or sale.
  • Identify all potential hazards (eg physical chemical bacterial) e.t.c
  • Identify the citial point consider preventive measures and decide which are needed to eliminate or  reduce poetical hazard to acceptable levels.

1.2              AIM AND OBJECTIVE

This is to find out possible pathogenic organism found in food (Jollof rice) sold to Top Rink Hotel and presidential hotel to examine and identify micro organism (bacteria) associated with  Jollof rice (food) sample collected from these hotels in Enugu. And to determines the bacteria load growth.

1.3              SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY.

The signifcance of the work is to enable us improve the hygiene of food (Jolloff rice) served and a good knowledge of a safe food handling practice suitable light colour protection clothing to be worn and it, will also enable  us to be aware of various pathogenic organism and the infection they transmit through   food (Jollof rice). As result of this the prevention of contamination of food is to be adlered to, this can be achieved by:

  • keeping high risk food at temperature that inhibits the growth of bacterial (i.e our of the damager Zone.) food should be kept below 40c in a refigecated unit an about 700c in a suitable warming unit.
  • Ensuing  that during preparation food is in the danger zone for as short a time as possible high risk food must not be left sitting out at room temperature.
  • Using suitable preservation such as salt and sugar.
  • Using various packing method like gas flushing or vacuum packing.

1.4              hypothesis

Ho          Presence of non- pathogenic organism in the Jollof rice served.

H1          Presence of pathogen organism in the Jollof rice served.

1.5              SCOPE OF STUDY

This project work is based on the identification examination of pathogenic bacterial organism associated with (Jollof rice) served in the following hotels, Top rink and presidential hotel all in Enugu town and the cavsatire organism include  staphylococcus auvious, salmonella, clostridia per fringers, Escherichia coli, the modern problem to food satiation

1.6              STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Pathogenic organism are organism that are referred to as specific health hazard associated with gas to intestinal distribute resulting from the consumption of food containing toxins. The  victim suffering from abdominal pain and diarrheas with more vomiting than diarrheas usually manifest the illness, which when untreated in time result to the does not result to death it had  led to unnecessary expenses in seeking medical advice. This has now made me be interested on how we can  improve on our food hygiene to avoid contamination.


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