the role of government agencies in urban housing delivery insufficient political will and ineffective housing administration in lagos metropolis – case study of ajegunle, lagos

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THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT AGENCIES IN URBAN HOUSING DELIVERY INSUFFICIENT POLITICAL WILL AND INEFFECTIVE HOUSING ADMINISTRATION IN LAGOS METROPOLIS – CASE STUDY OF AJEGUNLE, LAGOS

Abstract

There is a continuous exacerbation of environmental problems in big cities of today’s world, thereby, diminishing the quality of life in them. Of particular concern is the fact that today’s megacities are evolving in the developing world without corresponding growth in the economy, infrastructure and other human development indices. As urban population continues to grow in these cities of the Global South, governing institutions are usually unable to keep pace with their social responsibilities, thus, making the issue of urban governance very critical. This is because effective and efficient urban governance is highly essential for the creation, strengthening and sustenance of governing institutions.

Lagos, a mega-city of over 15.45 million people and the most populous metropolitan area on the African continent epitomizes the fundamental grave characteristics of the emerging megacities of the Global South, thereby, constituting an apt choice in understanding the emerging megacities of the next generation. Two out of every three Lagos residents live in slums and de-humanizing physical and social conditions. Many of them sleep, work, eat and cook under highway bridges, at the mercy of weather elements.

This research, therefore, evaluated urban governance through housing administration in Africa’s largest megacity. It examines the extent of housing problems in the city, the causal factors and the culpability of government agencies statutorily responsible for the provision, control and management of housing development in Lagos – the tenth largest city in the world. A representative geographic part of the city which manifests classic characteristics of slum life, listed by Mike Davis as the largest slum in Africa and the 6th largest in the world – Ajegunle – was adopted for case study. The research design combined rigorous literature search (desk research) with quantitative and, especially, qualitative approaches to data collection. The qualitative approach was more intensely adopted because government officials often respond to enquiries with ‘official answers and data’ which may not be reliable and the study had to rely on keen observation of physical traces, social interaction and personal investigation. The cross-sectional research method was adopted. Information was solicited from house-owners, building industry professionals, sociologists and officials of relevant government agencies, through research tools like questionnaires, interviews, focused group discussions and personal observations.

Table of Content

Title Page i
Abstract (German) iv
Statement of Originality vii
Quotations viii
Abstract ix
Dedication xi
Acknowledgement xi
Table of Contents xiii
List of Tables xviii
List of Figures xxii
List of Plates xxiv
Terms and Abbreviations xxvi
Reading Guidance/Format of the Research Report xxix

PART I
1.0 INTRODUCTION AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 2
1.1 Introduction 2
1.2 Theoretical Framework 13
1.2.1 Conflict Theory in Housing…………………………………………………………….……..15
1.2.2 Theory of Political Ecology..…………………………………………………………….……22
1.2.3 Exit, Voice and Loyalty in the Slum ………………………………………………….……26
1.2.4 Rationalizing the Theories/General Overview ..……………………………….……34

2.0 HOUSING AND ITS MULTI-DIMENSIONAL LINKAGES 37
2.1 Evolution and Development of Housing 37
2.1.1 Impact of the Industrial Revolution on Housing Development ………….…. 39
2.2 Slum and its Global Reality 41
2.3 Housing Linkages to the Socio-Economic Environment 45
2.3.1 Housing and Income/Employment Generation….…………………………………45
2.3.2 Housing and Poverty …………………………………………………………………………..47
2.3.3 Housing and Health……………………………………………………………………………47
2.3.4 Housing and Education………………………………………………………………………49
2.3.5 Housing and Other Opportunities……………………………………………………….50
2.4 Dynamics of Housing Components………………………………………………………………50
2.4.1 Housing and Government Policies…………………………………………………………51
2.4.2 Housing and Finance…………………………………………………………………………….52
2.4.3 Land…………………………………………………………………………………………………….54
2.4.4 Housing and Building Materials…………………………………………………………….54
2.4.5 Housing and Labour ………………………………………………………………………….55
2.4.6 Housing and Construction Technology………………………………………………….60
2.5 Housing and Urban Governance ………………………………………………………………….63
2.6 Housing Problems in Urban Nigeria ..…………………………………………………………..68
2.6.1 Quantitative Shortage…………………………………………………………………………..70
2.6.2 Qualitative Shortage…………………………………………………………………………….70
2.7 Causes of Housing Shortages ……………………………………………………………………….71
2.7.1 Heavy Rural-Urban Migration……………………………………………………………….71
2.7.2 Defective Housing Policies and Poor Implementation…………………………….72
2.7.3 Difficulty of Accessibility to Mortgage Facilities and Land Titles………………………………………………………………………………………….72
2.7.4 Heavy dependence on Foreign Building Materials and other Housing Inputs…….……………………………………………………………… 74
2.7.5 Use of Quacks for Professional Services………………………………………………..74
2.7.6 Problems of cost recovery……………………………………………………………………74
2.7.7 Poor Infrastructural Facilities……………………………………………………………….74
2.7.8 Economic problems…………………………………………………………………………….75
2.8 Housing Policy Development in Nigeria……………………………………………………….75
2.8.1 Previous Housing Policies in Nigeria……………………………………………………..77
2.9 Research Gaps……………………………………………………………………………………………82

3.0 RESEARCH PROBLEMS, QUESTIONS AND JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY………………………………………………………………..85
3.1 Problem Statement…………………………………………………………………………………85
3.2 Aim of Research 89
3.3 Objectives of Research 89
3.4 Research Main Question 89
3.5 Secondary Research Questions 90
3.6 Hypotheses of Research 90
3.7 Methodology of Research 91
3.8 Scope of the study 91
3.9 Limitations of Study 92
3.10 Relevance of Study 92
3.11 Audience of Study 93

4.0 METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH 94
4.1 Sources of Data 94
4.2 Research Design 95
4.3 Sampling Techniques 96

PART II
5.0 STUDY AREA 103
5.1 Lagos Metropolitan Area ………………………………………………………………………….104
5.1.1 Historical Background ………………………………………………………………….……106
5.1.2 Geography……………………………………………………………………………………..…..108
5.1.3 Demography …………… ………………………………………………………………….…… 109
5.1.4 Government and Administration…………………………………………………….…. 114
5.1.5 Economy …………………. ………………………………………………………………….….. 116
5.1.6 Housing …………………… ……………………………………………………………………… 117
5.1.7 Transportation ………… ……………………………………………………………………… 116
5.1.8 Water and Sanitation .. ……………………………………………………………………… 119
5.1.9 Poverty Profile ………….……………………………………………………………………… 121
5.2 Ajegunle in Ajeromi-Ifelodun Local Government Area 122

6.0 FIELD DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS 130
6.1 Data Presentation and Inferences ..130
6.1.1 Questionnaire I; Landlords………………………………………………………………….130
6.1.2 Questionnaire II; Housing Sector Professionals …………………………………..142
6.1.3 Interview with Staff of Statutory housing Agencies………………………………156
6.2 Overview of the Chapter/Discussion of Findings 160

7.0 COMPARATIVE HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS IN LAGOS: SLUM AND UPSCALE NEIGHBORHOODS 161
7.1 Observed Housing Inequalities in Lagos 164
7.1.1 Acquisition of Houses – Rental or Ownership 166
7.1.2 Neighborhood Location and Quality of Infrastructure…………………………..170
7.2 Comparative Housing Characteristics of Ajegunle and Its Adjoining Upscale Neighborhoods ………………………………………………………179
7.3 High Rent in Lagos and Linkage to Corrupt practices ..………………………………186
7.4 The Incumbent Administration and Low-Costing Housing ..…………………….. 192
7.5 Overview of the Chapter ………………………………………………………………………….195

8.0 HOUSING AND LIVING CONDITIONS AT AJEGUNLE AND OTHER SLUMS OF LAGOS.……………………………………………………………….198
8.1 The Slums of Lagos………………………………………………………………………………….198
8.1.1 Origin and Proliferation of Lagos Slums…………………………………………….200
8.2 Social and Health Challenges of Housing in Lagos Slums and at Ajegunle …………………………………………………………………….204
8.3 Overview of the Chapter…………………………………………………………………………..213

9.0 GOVERNMENT AGENCIES AND THEIR ROLE IN HOUSING DEVELOPMENT IN LAGOS AND AT AJEGUNLE 216
9.1 Housing Agencies and the Housing Mis-match in Lagos 218
9.2 Structure, Administration and Evaluation of Housing Institutions in Lagos 221
9.2.1 Lagos Executive Development Board (LEDB) – 1928 222
9.2.2 Lagos Planning Authority (LPA) – 1946……………………………………………….. 224
9.2.3 Ikeja Area Planning Authority (IAPA) – 1956 ………………………………………….226
9.2.4 Lagos State Development and Property Corporation (LSDPC) – 1972 ………………………………..…………………………….. 227
9.2.5 The Federal Housing Authority of Nigeria (FHA) – 1973 ……………………… 229
9.2.6 Lagos Building Investment Company Limited (LBICL) – 1980 …………… ….231
9.2.7 Ministry of Housing – 1999 ..…………………………………………………………… …..232
9.2.8 Ministry of Physical Planning and Urban Development (MPP&UD) – 2003 ………………………………………………………. ..234
9.2.9 Lagos Metropolitan Development and Governance Project (LMDGP) – 2006 ……………………………………..…………………………… 236
9.3 Forced Eviction as Anti-Slum Strategy of Lagos’ Governments 238
9.4 Corruption and the Housing Outcome in Lagos 241
9.5 Overall Assessment of the housing Institutions in Lagos State 247
9.6 Overview of the Chapter 251

PART III
10.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 257
10.1 Summary 257
10.2 Validation of Hypotheses 259
10.3 Implications for Theoretical Discourse 260
10.4 Conclusion 263

Introduction

The introduction of this research is only available in the paid version.

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