Sustainable Housing And Land Management A Call For Reform And Land Use Act 1978

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SUSTAINABLE HOUSING AND LAND MANAGEMENT A CALL FOR REFORM AND LAND USE ACT 1978

ABSTRACT

From time immemorial through the time of agriculture to the time of mechanical advancement and idustrialization, land has remained the most significant property in the life of man and his improvement. It is a wellspring of riches to the individuals who have it and the mother of all properties. As it were, for all intents and purposes all the essential needs of human presence are land subordinate. In perspective of the significance and helpfulness of land to man and his advancement and also the improvement of his environment, each individual for the most part wants to secure and claim a segment of land for housing purpose or to accomplish the different closures for which the land is implied. Subsequently, to make land in Nigeria accessible to all and to guarantee that land is gained and put to an appropriate use for the required improvement, governments amid and after colonial period ordered laws to represent the utilization or organization of land in Nigeria.

Prior to the entry of the colonial masters, there were standard laws which represented the organization of land in Nigeria. These standard laws fluctuated starting with one region then onto the next as a result of the distinctions in traditions of the general population. This represented the variety of land laws in Nigeria preceding the proclamation of the Land Use Act of 1978. These laws were connected in every district to direct land in the area.

Despite the presence of laws regulating land management, the issues of lodging and land organization persevered both in the Northern and Southern Nigeria. There were new issues, for example, land racketeering and speculations. High compensations were demanded by landowners whenever the government acquired land for development or individuals for rent. Thus, acquisition of land by government or individuals was becoming almost impossible in Nigeria.

One of the main considerations that was said to be a hindrance against proficient usage of the Second Development Plan 1975-1980, was absence of land for housing and development projects. To break this boundary and restraining infrastructures of proprietors, the Federal Military Government set up a few boards to consider how best to tackle the issues related with land residency and organization in Nigeria. The report of one of these boards i.e., the Land Use Panel of 1977 inevitably framed the premise of the Land Use Act No. 6 of 1978.

The purpose of this essay therefore, is to critically examine the Land Use Act of 1978 to see the extent to which it has enhanced the administration of land in Nigeria and provision of housing. In this connection, reforms and innovations introduced by the Act to improve the administration of land are critically examined. Bearing in mind that every being has its scar, the Act is not without shortcomings. In this regard, this study further beams its search lights in figuring out the inherent problems of the Act. Finally, this work makes recommendations on how to improve the Act in view of the recent proposal by Government to review the Act.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

COVER PAGE………………………………………………………………………

CERTIFICATION PAGE……………………………..………………..……………

ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………………

TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………….……………………………

DEDICATION……………………………………………………………………..…

ACKNOWLEDGMENT…………………..…………………………………………

TABLE OF CASES…………………………………….…………………………

TABLE OF STATUTES…………………………………………………………..

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS………………………………………………………

CHAPTER 1

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.0.0.             INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………

1.1.0.             BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY………………………………………

1.2.0.             OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY……………………………………………

1.3.0.             FOCUS OF THE STUDY…………………………………………………

1.4.0.             SCOPE OF THE STUDY…………………………………………………………..

1.5.0.             METHODOLOGY……………………………………………………………………

1.6.0.             LITERATURE REVIEW………………………………………………………….

1.7.0.             DEFINATION OF TERMS………………………………………………………

1.8.0.             CONCLUSION. ……………………………………………………………………

CHAPTER 2

THE NECESSITY OF THE LAND USE ACT OF 1978

2.0.0              INTRODUCTION………………………………………………

2.1.0  NATURE OF LAND HOLDING PRIOR TO THE PROMULGATION OF THE ACT……………………………………………………………………………

2.1.1              CUSTOMARY SYSTEM OF LAND TENURE………………………………..

2.1.2              NON CUSTOMARY SYSTEM OF LAND TENURE…………………………

2.1.3  THE SPECIAL LAND TENURE SYSTEM IN THE FORMER NORTHERN NIGERIA……………………………………………………………………….

2.2.0              HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE LAND USE ACT………

2.3.0  IDEOLOGICAL     AND     PHILOSOPHICAL     BASIS     FOR     THE PROMULGATION OF THE LAND USE ACT………………………………

2.4.0  EFFECT OF THE LAND USE ACT ON THE PRE-EXISTING LAND LAWS IN NIGERIA……..………………………………………………………………….

2.4.1              THE LAND USE ACT AND CUSTOMARY LAND LAW AND TENURE…..

2.4.2  THE LAND USE ACT AND THE RECEIVED ENGLISH LAND LAW AND TENURE. ……………………………………………………………………………..

2.4.3              THE LAND USE ACT AND THE LAND TENURE LAW, 1962……………

2.5.0              CONCLUSION. …………………………………………………………………….

CHAPTER 3

THE LAND USE ACT: REFORMS & INNOVATIONS

3.0.0.             INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………..

3.1.0.             POLICIES INTENDED BY THE ACT…………………………………………

3.1.1              UNIFORM LAND POLICY…………………………………………………….

3.1.2              STATE OWNERSHIP, CONTROL AND TRUSTEESHIP POLICY………

3.1.3 PLANNED DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION POLICY. …………………………………………………………………………………..

3.1.4      LAND USE POLICY……………………………………………………………..

3.1.5              RIGHT OF OCCUPANCY OR LEASEHOLD POLICY…………………….

3.1.6              CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY……………………………………………

3.1.7              REDISTRIBUTION AND EQUITABLE POLICY…………………………….

3.1.8              ALIENABILITY OF A RIGHT OF OCCUPANCY……………………………

3.1.9              PROSCRIPTION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST FELLOW NIGERIANS.………………………………………………………………………..

3.1.10 REVOCATION OF A RIGHT OF OCCUPANCY UNDER THE ACT………..

3.1.11 THE ACT, A SOURCE OF GOVERNMENT REVENUE…………………..…

3.2.0  CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………………..

CHAPTER 4

THE LAND USE ACT, PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

4.0.0              INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………

4.1.0              PROBLEMS OF THE ACT…………………………………………………

4.1.1  PROBLEMS IN RESPECT OF TRUST CONCEPT INTODUCED BY THE ACT………………………………………………………………………………………….

4.1.2  PROBLEM IN RESPECT OF POWER CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT BY THE STATE……………………………………………………………………………

4.1.3              THE ATTITUDE OF FORMER LAND OWNERS TO THE ACT…………….

4.1.4              CONSENT REQUIREMENT AND ITS ATTENDANT PROBLEMS…………

4.1.5              THE GOVERNOR’S UNFETTERED POWER TO DESIGNATE CERTAIN AREAS AS URBAN LAND. ………………………………………………………

4.1.6              THE HALF HECTARE RULE BY THE ACT IS CONFISCATORY…………

4.1.7  FINALITY  OF  DECISION  OF  THE  LAND  USE  AND  ALLOCATION COMMITTEE. ……………………………………………………………………………

4.1.8  THE GOVERNOR CONCURRENT POSSESSION WITH THE OCCUPIER’S RIGHT, A BAR TO ACTIONABLE TRESPASS……………………………

4.1.9  THE GOVERNOR’S EXCLUSIVE POWER OF REVOCATION UNDER THE ACT…………………………………………………………………………………………….

4.1.10 THE DISCRMINATORY AND RESTRICTIVE NATURE OF THE ACT……

4.1.11 THE ACT AND THE CONSTITUTION………………………………………….

4.2.0              CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………………..

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.0.0.             CONCLUSION ……………………………………………………………………….

5.1.0.             RECOMMENDATION …………………………………………………………

BIBILOGRAPHY

xi

TABLES OF CASES

  • Abioye v. Yakubu (1991) 5 NWLR(pt 190) p.30
  • G of Lagos State v. N.E.P.A Suit No. LD/372/81 delivered on 5/7/82
  • G of Ogun State v. A.G.F(1982) 3 NCLR pp. 193-194
  • G of Southern Nigeria v. John Holt(1910) 2 NLR 1
  • Akpan Sam Adua v. Akpan Udo Essien (2010) 8ALL FWLR(pt. 535) p.361
  • Amodu Tijani v. Secretary of Southern Nigeria(1921) AC 399 at 404
  • Animashaun v. Sufiami Suit No. LD 19/77 dated 10/6/08
  • Chief Christopher I. Monkom & Ors v. Augustine Odili (2010) 9 ALL FWLR (pt. 536) p.552
  • Chief R. Nkwocha v. Governor Anambra State & Ors (1983)4 NCLR 719
  • Davies v. Ilo Suit No. Ik/3/73
  • Eze v. Igiliegbe & Ors 14 WACA 61
  • M. Aina & Co. Ltd v. Commissioner for Lands and Housing, Oyo State of Nigeria (1983)4 NCLR 643
  • Madam Safuratu Salami & Ors v. Eniola Oke (1987) 9-11 SC 43
  • Makeri v. Kafinta (1990) 7NWLR 158
  • National Bank of Nig. Ltd v. Adedeji (1989) 1NWLR (pt. 76) 212
  • Oduntan Osiniwo v. A.G of Southern Province (1912) 2NWLR p.77
  • Ogunche v. Iliyasu (1974) NNLR (1972) 2 UILR (pt. iv) 424
  • Ogunleye v. Oni (1990) 2NWLR (pt.135) 745
  • Ogunola v. Eiyekole (1990) 4NWLR (pt.146) 632 at 647
  • Okunola v. Oluwo (1987) 4NWLR (pt.64) p.141
  • Otunba Bola Adewumi v. Mile ogunbowale & Ors. Suit No ID/115/81, High Court Ikeja, 28/05/82.
  • Provost of Lagos State college of Education & Ors v. Dr Kolawole Edun & Ors (2004) 6NWLR (pt.870) 476 at 509.
  • Queen v. The Minister for Land and Survey Exparte, the Bank of the North (1963) NWLR 58
  • Savannah Bank (Nig) Ltd Plc v. Ajilo (1989)NWLR (pt.97) p.35
  • Tijani Akinloye v. Chief Oyejide Suit No. HC3/9A/83 of 17/9/8
  • Umar Ali & Co. (Nig) Ltd v. Commissioner for LandsS and Survey & Ors (1983) 4 NCLR 571
  • Upper Benue River Basin Development Authority v. Auta Alka & (1998) 2NWL. (pt.537) 328

xiii

TABLE OF STATUTES

STATUTE:

*The Constitution of the Federation 1963 No.20

*The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1979

*The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (Promulgation) 1999 Cap.24 LFN 2004

*The Land and Native Rights of Proclamation, 1910 *The Land and Native Rights of Ordinance, 1916

*The Land Use Act No.6 March 29, 1978 Cap L5 LFN 2004 *The Public Land (Miscellaneous) Decree, 1976

*The Public Land Acquisition (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act Cap 167, 1976

LAWS

*The High Court Law Cap 61 Laws of Eastern Nigeria, 1963

*The Land Tenure Law No.25 April 22 of 1962, Cap 59 Laws of Northern Nigeria 1963

TREATY

*Treaty of cession 1861

xiv

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

ABU……………………………………………………….………Amadu Bello University

AG…………..…………………………………………………….………Attorney General

AGF………………………………………………………Attorney General of the Federation

ALL FWLR……….……………………………………………All Federation Law Report

LFN……………………………………………………..Laws of the Federation of Nigeria

NEPA……………………………………………………….National Electrical Power Authority

NCLR……………………………………………….….Nigerian Constitution Law Report

NLR……………………………….…………………………………… Nigeria Law report

NNLR………………………………………………….…… Northern Nigeria Law Report

NRNLR………………………….……….……….Northern Region of Nigeria Law Report

NWLR……………………………………………………….Nigerian Weekly Law Report

SC……………………………………………………………………………Supreme Cases

UI…………………………………………………………..………….University of Ibadan

UILR……………………..……………………………………University of Ife Law Report

UNIFE…………………………………………………………………..University of Ile-Ife

UNILAG…………………………………..………….………………..University of Lagos

WACA………………………………………………………West African Court of Appeal

SUSTAINABLE HOUSING AND LAND MANAGEMENT A CALL FOR REFORM AND LAND USE ACT 1978?/ PRICE: #8,000

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