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effect of pterocarpus mildbreadii seed on plasma hdl cholesterol of albino rat

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EFFECT OF PTEROCARPUS MILDBREADII SEED ON PLASMA HDL CHOLESTEROL OF ALBINO RAT

This work was carried out to investigate the effects of pterocarpus mildbreadii seed on the HDL- level of albino rats.High density lipoprotein(HDL) is a fraction of cholesterol,which helps to transport cholesterol from peripheral of cell to the liver.High density lipoprotein is carried out to investigate cardio vascular diseases.Fresh oha seed (pterocarpus mildbreadii seed) was collected from Amokwe in udi local government Area Enugu state. They were dried at room temperature for about a month in an open laboratory space, groud into coarse form and weighed on an electrical weighing balance. 3% tween-80 was prepared by dissolving 3% tween -80 in 97ml of distilled water. The grounded pterocarpus mildbreadii was dissolve in the 3% tween-80.A total of sixteen wistar abino rats used for this analysis. The rats were divided into 4(four) groups. Group 1contain 4 rats and received 0.5 each of 3% tween-80. Group 2 contain 5 rats and were administered with 1400mg/kg b.w of pteridocarpus mildreadii solution Group 3 contain 3 rats and were administered with 2600mg/kg. b.w of pteridocarpus mildbreadii solution. Group 4 contain 4 rats and were administered with 500mg/kg. b.w. of Edmard MRT complex.
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TABLE OF CONTENT
Tittle page………………………………………………………………………………………. i
Certification ……………………………………………………………………………………. ii
Dedication………………………………………………………………………………………. iii
Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………………….. iv
Abstract………………………………………………………………………………………….. v
Table of content……………………………………………………………………………… vi
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction………..……………………………………………………………………. 1
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature review………..………………………………………………………… 3
2.1 lipids…………………………………………………………………………………..…… 4
2.2 Classification of lipids………………………………………………….…………… 4
2.3 Triglycerides……………………………………………………….……………………. 6
2.4 Waxes…………………………………………………………………..…………………. 8
2.5 Phospholipid…………………………………..…………………………………….… 8
2.6 Fatty acids……………………………………………………………………… 8
2.7 Types of fatty acids…………………………………………………………… 9
2.8 Unsaturated fatty acids……………………..……………………………… 10
2.9 Essential fatty acids…………………………..……………………………… 11
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2.10 Steroids…………………………………………………………………………… 11
2.11 Cholesterol……….……………………………………………………………… 12
2.12 Dietary source & effect of Cholesterol……………………………… 15
2.13 Functions of Cholesterol in the body………………………………… 17
2.14 lipoprotein metabolism………………………………………………..… 19
2.15 very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)………………………………… 19
2.16 low density lipoprotein…………………………………………………… 20
2.17 Function of LDL………………………………………………………………… 21
2.18 High density lipoprotein (HDL)……………………………………… 21
2.19 Clinical significance………………………………………………………… 22
2.20 Fat soluble vitamin………………………………………………………… 23
2.21 Vitamin A……………………………………………………………………… 24
2.22 Vitamin D……………………………………………………………………… 25
2.23 Vitamin E………………………………………………………………………… 26
2.24 Vitamin K………………………………………………………………………. 27
2 .25 lipid storage in plants……………………………………………………… 27
2.26 lipid Body structure………………………………………………………… 27
2.27 Unusual fatty acids in seed triacylglycerol……………………… 28
2.28 PProperties of lipids…………………………………………………………….. 29
2.29 Physical properties………………………………………………………… 30
2.30 Chemical properties………………………………………………………… 31
2.31 Rancidity………………………………………………………………………… 32
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2.32 Roles of lipids………………………………………………………………… 32
2.32 Structure……………………………………………………………………… 33
2.34 Insulation……………………………………………………………………… 33
2.35 Nerve function………………………………………………………………… 33
2.36 Energy source…………………………………………………………………… 34
2.37 Uses of oha seed (pterocarpus mildbreadii)…………………….… 34
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Material…………………………………………………………………………… 35
3.1 Plant seed …………………………………………………………………… .. . 35
3.2 Animals………………………………………………………………………………… 35
3.3 Equipments…………………………………………………………………………… 36
CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 Cholesterol activity……………………………………………………………… 40
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Discussion and conclusion………………………………………….……. 41
5.1 Discusion……………………………………………………………………………… 41
5.2 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………. 41
Appendix…………………………………………………………………………………… 42
Reference………………………………………………………………………………….. 46
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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

Pterocarpus mildbreadii are trees with edible parts successfully budded, pterocarpus species (P.Soyauxii and P. mildbeadii are reported to have different patterns of leaf flush, one spontanous and the other intermitted making the first suitable for commercial production and the second the home production (Okafor 1978). Pterocarpus mildbreadii being the major case study both the vegetable and the seeds.
The vegetable is majorly used in our various home for cooking. Pterocarpus mildbreadii (Oha seed) are not consumed by the people from the eastern part of Nigeria. So it cannot be majorly stated the content of this oha seed.
The demand for vegetable oils as a result of diminishing source of oils and fats creates the needs for new sources as well as exploiting sources that are currently unexploited in order to supplement the existing ones (Minzangi et al. 2011).
As industrialists continues to rely mostly on the popular vegetable oil like coconut oil, soyabeans oil, ground nut oil, palm oil etc. for the preparation and production of their various products.

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