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Adsorption of palm oil with synthetic adsorbent (coal)

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  • Chapters: 1-5

 ADSORPTION OF PALM OIL WITH SYNTHETIC ADSORBENT (COAL)

ABSTRACT

This project was Carrie lent using sub-bituminous coal and crude palm oil.  The degree of bleaching of the palm oil was monitored with a spectorphoto meter.  The coal was collected in a lump from the mine.  It air-chiecl  to removed the   moisture content and thereafter, size reduced to a small particle size foe effective activation.

The activation process was carried out in a fume cup board and phosphoric acid was used as an activated agent.

In the treatment of palm oil, sodium hydro rude was used for the neutralization and  rude acid for the deodorization of palm oil.  Some experiment were also conducted to test for the iodine value, specification value, peroxide value, acidity value, melting point, free fatly acid value, and viscosity of palm oil.

After the preliminary treatment, the colour of palm oil was tested with a spectrophomenter to determined the initial colour of the palm oil.  100ml of these palm oil was measured into a beaker,10g of coal activated carbon with the particle size of 0.185mm was added to the beaker and heated at a temperature of 1000c  for 40minute.

The oil was allow to cooled, thereafter it was filtered with a filter paper to collect the filtrate.  The colour of the  bleached oli tested to determined the degree of beaching.

The same experiment was repeated with the same weight of coal activated carbon at two  difference temperature of 1500c and 2000c the result obtained was recorded and the colour reduction was, at 1000c, colour reduction was 57%, at 1500c, the % colour reduction was 75%,at 2000c, the % colour reduction was 81%.

The same experiment was also conduction with 10g each of 0.45 particle size of activated carbon for  three difference temperature of 1000c, 1500c and 2000c at a constant time of 40 minute each.

The result obtained was recorded and colour reduction  for each experiment was, at 1000c, % colour reduction was 52%, at 1500,% colour reduction was 69%, at 2000c,% colour reduction 70%.  It was observed that the smallest particle size of coal activated carbon has a higher percentage of colour reduction.  Also it was noticed that, as  the temperature of heating increases, colour reduction also increase.

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

1.1              INTRODUCTION

1.2              Scope/Objective of The Project

CHAPTER TWO

2.1              Theory of Adsorption

2.12          Type of Adsorption

2.13          Equilibrium Relations of Adsorption

(A)             Langmuir Isotherm Theory

(B)              Brunur-Emmett-Teller Theory

(C)              Freunlich Isotherm

2.2              Plam Oil

2.22          Composition of Palm Oil

2.23          Properties of Palm Oil

2.24          Uses of Palm Oil

2.31          History of Coal in Nigeria

2.32          Coal Formation

2.33          Classification of Coal

2.34          Properties of Coal

CHAPTER THREE

3.1              Activation of Coal

3.12          Experimental Method of Coal Activation

3.13          Test For Porosity & Density

3.20          Preliminary Treatment of Palm Oil

2.23          Characterization of Palm Oil

3.3       Method of Adsorption

3.4              Experiment Result

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0              Analysis of Result

4.1       Analysis of Coal Activated Carbon

4.2              Analysis of Palm Oil

4.3              Analysis of Colour  Reduction

.CHAPTER FIVE

5.1              Discussion

5.2              Recommendation

5.3              Conclusion

5.4              Reference.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1              INTRODUCTION

In Niger we are blessed with abundant  mineral resources, which include crude oil, palm oil clay and coal etc.  some of the resources are refined and exported while some are exported in crude form for foreign exchange.  Nigeria being one of the developing countries, the over-dependence on the importation of these refined and high has result in an economic degradation and high standard of living.

Some of these mineral resource, because they are crude in the natural sence, thy must be refined before it is fit for human consumption and other industrial application.  For instance, palm oil processed from palm fruit has to be refined to remove impurities and the yellowish red colour to made it more suitable for human consumption and other industrial processes.  This project research is focusing on the rate of adsorption of these palm oil with synthetic adsorbent (coal)

Coal is a black combustible solid rich in carbon and some variety of hydrocarbon.  It is found in a stratified sedimentary deposit sometime at great depths.  All coal owe their origin to slow decomposition and chemical conversion of immense masses of organic mineral.  Coal can be classified according to rank, than is according to the degree of metamorphosing in the series which are mostly base on  the carbon content of the coal substance.  The ranks of coal are peat, lignite, bituminous and anthracite coal.

Coal has being tested to be an adsorbent, thus, this research work is to determine the rate of adsorption of palm oil with these adsorbent. Palm oil belong to the family of lipids which are compounds that are soluble in organic solvent like ester, acetone, alcohol, chloroform but insoluble in water.  Crude palm oil be refine through the method of degumming, dandification, deodorization, bleaching, neutralization etc.

1.2              SCOPE/OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT

The objective of this project research is to determine the rate of adsorption of palm oil with synthetic adsorbent (coal).  The refining of palm oil using synthetic adsorbent at various time internal and temperature will be used to detect the extent the purity and colour change in natural palm oil.  This involves the following steps.  I the activation coal and 2, adsorption process proper.

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