assessment of carbon monoxide (co) level in enugu metropolis monitoring industrial and residential area

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 ASSESSMENT OF CARBON MONOXIDE (CO) LEVEL IN ENUGU METROPOLIS MONITORING INDUSTRIAL AND RESIDENTIAL AREA

ABSTRACT
Combustion of fossil fuels presents difficult environmental challenge to societies as it could degrade the environment and affect human health and quality of life as a result of air pollution generated. Vehicular emissions are major contributors to air pollution in urban areas as they contain harmful gases. In two locations of Enugu metropolis (high traffic ’Old Park’ and low traffic ‘Caritas University’),the levels of carbon monoxide has been investigated in order to determine its pollution status with regards to air. EL-USB-CO analyzer used for the analysis indicated variations in the levels of CO for the period of study. The results obtained revealed that the concentrations of CO in high traffic (HT) area is higher than that of low traffic (LT) and is unacceptable compared with the Federal Environmental Protection agency (FEPA) Nigeria set limit. The dispersion pattern of the pollutant showed that the extent of spreading depends on the traffic population of the area. This strongly suggests that vehicular emission contributes to the levels of carbon monoxide in the environment.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page………..………………………………………………………………….. i
Certification page…………………………………………………………………..ii
Dedication…………………………………………………………………………iii
Acknowledgement…………………………………………………………………iv
Abstract…………………………………………………………………………….v
Table of content…………………………………………………………………….vi

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background of the study…….……………………………….……………1-3
1.2. Statement of problem……………………………………………….…….3-4
1.3. Justification of the Research………………………………………………4
1.4. Aim and Objectives………………………………………………………5
1.4.1 Aim………………………………………………………………..5
1.4.2 Objectives………………………………………………………….5
1.5. Research Hypothesis………………………………………………………5
1.6. Scope of Study…………………………………………………………….5-6

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Preamble……………………………………………………………………7-9
2.2 Properties of CO……………………………………………………………9
2.2.1 Physical properties…………………………………………………….10
2.2.2 Chemical properties………………………………………………10-11
2.3 Signs and symptoms of carbon monoxide……………………………11-12
2.4 Test for Carbon (II) Oxide…………………………………………….13
2.5 Carbon monoxide poisoning ………………………………………….13
2.5.1 Acute Poisoning…………………………………………………14
2.5.2 Chronic Poisoning………………………………………………14-15
2.6 Causes of Carbon monoxide…………………………………………..15
2.7 Sources of carbon monoxide…………………………………………..16
2.7.1 Worldwide Emission……………………………………………16
2.7.2 EU Emission ………………………………………………..…16-17
2.7.3 Other Sources of Carbon monoxide……………………………17-18
2.8 Effects of carbon monoxide on human health…………………………18
2.8.1 Epidemiological effect of carbon of carbon monoxide…………18-20
2.8.2 Asphyxiation……………………………………………………20
2.8.3 Parkinson Disease………………………………………………21
2.8.4 Pathophysiology ………………………………………………..21
2.8.5 Haemoglobin……………………………………………………21
2.8.6 Myoglobin………………………………………………………22
2.8.7 Cytochrome oxidase…………………………………………….22
2.8.8 Central Nervous System Effect…………………………………22-23
2.8.9 Pregnancy……………………………………………………….23
2.9 Diagnosis………………………………………………………………23
2.9.1 Differential Diagnosis……..………………………..…………..23-24
2.10 Prevention of Carbon monoxide………………………………………24
2.10.1 Carbon monoxide Detection…………………………………..24
2.11 Standardization……………………………………………………….25
2.11.1 Recommended World Health Organization……………………25
2.11.2 Recommended WHO European Guideline for air quality…….25
2.12 Treatment……………………………………………………………26
2.13 Measurement and Monitoring of CO………………………………..27
2.13.1 Local Studies………………………………………………..28-29
2.14 Preparation of Carbon monoxide…………………………………….29-30
2.15 Importance of CO……………………………………………………30
2.15.1 Uses of CO………………………………………………….30
2.15.2 Producer gas………………………………………………..30-31
2.15.3 Water gas…………………………………………………..31-32
2.16 Impacts of CO to the environment………………………………….33-34

CHAPTER THREE EXPERIMENT
3.1 Methodology………………………………………………………..35
3.2 Sources of Air Studied………………………………………………35
3.3 Equipment used………………………………………………………36
3.4 Experimental Procedure…………………………………………..…36-37
CHAPTER FOUR RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Tables of Result…………………………………………………….38-42
4.2 Test of Hypothesis………………………………………………….43-47
4.3 Graphical Representation…………………………………………..47-55
4.4 Discussion…………………………………………………………56-57

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary…………………………………………………………..58
5.2 Limitation………………………………………………………….58
5.3 Recommendation…………………………………………………..58
5.4 Conclusion…………………………………………………………59
5.5 B.E.M.E. (Bill Of Engineering Measurement and Evaluation)……59
REFERENCES……………………………………………………60-64

APPENDIX…………………………………………………………65

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