PRODUCTION OF A HIGH QUALITY BAR SOAP AND COMPARE WITH DETERGENT
The sole aim of this research work is to produce a high quality of bar soaps and compare with detergent. The major aspects of this projects deals with quality control processes in the production of a high quality bar soaps.
In soap production, cold process was used and this was found out to be the most effective means of production considering several factors. In the production of bar soaps, palm kernel oil was used instead of fallow or grease. This is because palm kernel has a low titre value and gives a quicker lather and the fallow or grease gives a high titre value which produce soap that is slow to dissolve at low temperature. Different formulation were made and it was found out that the best ratio for a high quality soap is 2:1 of palm kernel to caustic soda respectively. Carrying out test on soap produced were saponification value of P.K.O to be 248.24 refractive index 1.45, free fatty acid value of 1.56, acid value of 3.5, moisture content of soap 35.29%, percentage free alkaline 0.4% alcohol insoluble matter of 1.43% and PH value of 8.80 at a temperature reading of 30.00.
The synthetic detergent which was developed to replace the soapy detergent has a better quality. It was prepared by a sulphonation reaction when this reaction is carried out, a detergent paste is formed which when builders and other additives were added, it then form detergent which was size reduced and seized.
The sieved detergent was dried by solar energy. From the project, it was discovered that (STPP) helps the detergent to reduce water hardness sequestering calcium ion and heavy metal ion water, could increase the cleaning action of detergent. And also the hydrogen peroxide acts as stain removal due to its bleaching action, the CMC acts as anti-redeposition agent.
The high quality bar soap was found to contain certain materials which limit the formation of scum in hard water and this ascertained that the synthetic detergent is not more effective than bar soap when washing and moreover bar soap does not change the colour of a material when washing but detergent does by bleaching the colour.
TABLE OF CONTENT
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND ANLYSIS