INFLUENCE OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE, SCHOOL TYPE AND LOCATION ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF IN-SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS IN NSUKKA ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA.
The study sought to determine the influence of emotional intelligence, school type and school location on achievement in Mathematics and English language of senior secondary school adolescents in Nsukka Education Zone. Five research questions and five hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted ex-post facto research design. The study was conducted in Nsukka Education Zone, which is located in Enugu North Senatorial Zone of Enugu state.
The target population of the study comprised of all the 4,738 adolescents in senior secondary two (SSII) in Nsukka Education Zone, Enugu State, Nigeria. A sample of 474 students, 237 males and 237 females obtained through non-proportionate stratified random sampling technique from eight schools in Nsukka educational zone was used for the study. A questionnaire was used to collect data on the students’ emotional intelligence while a proforma was used to collect students’ past scores in Mathematics and English. Data collected were analysed using means simple and multiple linear regression analysis, and t-test of independent samples.
The findings of the study revealed that emotional intelligence affect students’ achievement in mathematics and English Language. School type and location also influence the achievement of students in mathematics and English Language. One major implication of the findings is that emotional intelligence and school type could predict 16.3 percent and 16.8 percent of variations in students achievement in mathematics and English Language respectively. Emotional intelligence and school location could predict 12.80 percent and 10.70 percent of variation in students achievement in mathematics and English Language respectively. Emotional intelligence of students which hitherto has not been taking seriously in school is an important variable in students achievement and more importantly when considered along with school type and location. It was recommended among others that there should be emotional intelligence training for teachers and school administrators to ensure a better emotional intelligence grooming of the students.
Background of the Study Adolescence is referred to as a stage between childhood and adulthood. It denotes the period from the beginning of puberty to maturity. It usually starts at about age 14 in males and age 12 in females. In school adolescents refers to the adolescents in schools and they are often noticed in secondary schools. It is a period associated with “stress and storm”. It is often physical, psychological, social and cultural expressions of emotions. It is noticed that at this adolescent stage, their emotions are high and may lead to so many changes in their academic achievement (Goleman, 1995). Goleman further stated that adolescence are known to be full of life and capable of carrying so many activities socially, psychological,historically, biologically and otherwise. Adolescence can also be defined as the physical transition marked by the onset of puberty and the termination of physical growth; cognitively, as changes in the ability to think abstractly and multi-dimensionally; or socially, as a period of preparation for adult roles (Schneider, 1999).
For the purpose of this study, adolescence refers to as a transitional stage of growth marked by changes in physical, physiological, psychological and emotional development of students. Interestingly, developmental psychologists focus on changes in relations to parents and peers as a function of school structure and pubertal status. This school structure inadolescence stage of development directly or indirectly sprout future adolescence behaviour or rather form his personality while in school.
Therefore, in-school adolescence connotes a typical school adolescent. A thorough understanding of in-school adolescence in society depends on information from various perspectives, including psychology, biology, history, sociology, education, and anthropology.
In-school adolescence is a period of multiple transitions involving education, training, employment and unemployment, as well as transitions from one living circumstance to another (Betz, 2002).
Within all of these perspectives, in-school adolescent is viewed as relating to school activities and that of the adolescent on the course of development, through a transitional period of cognitive development between childhood and adulthood, whose cultural purpose is the preparation of children for adult roles while in school. This preparation is so because, it is in the school that adolescents acquire basic tenets of cognitive and/or intellectual development.
Cognitive advances encompass both increases in knowledge and the ability to think abstractly and to reason more effectively. According to Piaget, (1986) the ability of the adolescent to solve complex problems is a function of accumulated learning and education. Hence, an in-school adolescent is a typical adolescent who is in school; be it college or high school, poised to acquire learning experiences necessary to transit into adulthood (Schneider, 1999).
For the purpose of this study, an in-school adolescent could be referred to as students in secondary schools. Such persons have emotional challenges that may influence their academic achievement in Mathematics and English language. Of which, English and Mathematics is a necessary prerequisite for students transition into higher education.
Among all academic subjects studied at school, Mathematics and English languagehave distinctly contributed to the objectives of general education of man such as: 3Rs- Reading, Writing and Arithmetic (Aderinonye, 2003).
The importance of Mathematics and English Language cannot be over emphasized in Nigeria education system. Students are required to pass them at credit level to be qualified to gain admission into the university. This is because English and Mathematics is a yardstick for measuring students’ achievement in terms of transition into higher educational system.