Supervisory competencies required and possessed by secondary school principals in north central states.

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This study investigated the supervisory competencies required and possessed by
secondary school principals in North Central States, Nigeria, focusing on four
(4) identified supervisory areas of instructional leadership, communication,
information and communication technology and human relations.

Descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population of the study comprised 2511 secondary school principals located in the study area. The sample was 484 respondents representing 40% of the population drawn from three States out of the six states and Abuja using Multistage sampling procedure. A 37 item questionnaire titled Principals Supervisory Competencies questionnaire (P.S.C.Q.) and Interview Schedule were used.

The selection of seven principals for the interview schedule was purposively carried out. Instrument for data collection were validated by three experts and the reliability estimates for clusters A, B, C and D were0.96, 0.91, .0.69, 0.70 respectively and the four clusters put together was 0.94. The research questions were answered descriptively using mean and standard deviation, while the hypotheses were tested inferentially using the t-test statistic. The findings of this study showed that both male and female principals in the study area possess instructional leadership competencies, communication competencies and human relations competencies.

However, the study revealed that ICT competencies were not
possessed by both categories of principals, hence they require ICT
competencies. Similarly, the study showed that four out of the eight null
hypotheses were rejected because there was a significant difference in the
opinions of the two groups and the remaining four were accepted.

Based on the findings, conclusions and implications of the study, the researcher
recommended, among other things that: principals utilize the possessed
competencies, government at all levels should fund training programmes for
principals on ICT competency, the possession of ICT competencies should be
made a requirement for appointment of principals.

Others are integration of ICT competency acquisition into pre-service teacher training programmes, Association of Nigeria Conference of Principals of Secondary Schools(ANCOPSS) should organize seminars’, workshops and conferences on ICT for her members.

Government should as well map out strategies to monitor and
ensure that principals utilize the supervisory competencies possessed by them to
enhance teaching and learning in the school. Stakeholders of education such as
NTI, TRCN should organize regular training on ICT for in-service teachers. The
findings from the interview showed a consensus with the result of the

Background of the Study
Education is recognized as a potent instrument for social and economic
development of individuals and societies.

Secondary education is the form of education which children receive immediately after completing primary school education. It constitutes post primary education and sometimes serves as a link between primary and university education. According to Ogbonnaya (2010) secondary education is the form of education which children receive automatically after they have received primary school education.

In the same light, Whitaker, (2001) asserts that, secondary education refers to full-time education provided in secondary schools usually for pupils between the ages of eleven or twelve and eighteen plus. All the above means that secondary
education refers to education provided in the secondary school which is meant
for primary school graduates and a processing ground for a career in higher

The broad aims of secondary education (Federal Republic of Nigeria,
2004) within Nigeria’s overall national objectives are preparation of students for
useful living within the society and for higher education (p.17). It is of six years
duration and is being given in two stages, the Junior Secondary School (JSS)
and the Senior Secondary School (SSS). Each stage is of three years duration.

Emphasizing the importance of secondary education, Ogbonnaya (2010) asserts
that it is a stepping-stone to higher education, helps in the development of the
potentials of our youths and their cultural talents, encourages cooperation
among students, helps produce good citizens and provides for differences in
talents and opportunities as a result of its broad and diversified curriculum.

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