Effects of film-modeling and direct-teaching techniques on self-concept of schooling adolescents.

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This study investigated the effects of film. Modelling and direct-teaching techniques on self-concepts of schooling adolescents. The study adopted the quasi-experimental design. The sample for the study comprised one hundred and fifteen (115) secondary school students drawn from three (3) out of four (4) co-education public secondary schools in Nsukka urban.

All the SSI students in the four co-education schools made up the population. Intact class of SSIA students in each of three schools were purposively selected as sample for the study comprising twenty (20) male students and twenty (20) female students from school (1) for direct-teaching experimental group, twenty (20) male students and fifteen (15) female students from school (2) for film modelling experimental group, while twenty (20) male students and twenty (20) female students from school (3)for control group.

Direct-teaching experimental group was taught on how to enhance self-concept. Film-modelling experimental group was shown filmed drama on how to enhance self-concept, while the control group did not received any treatment than the normal counselling services with their school guidance counsellor. Eight research questions and twelve null hypotheses guided the study. The instrument used for data collection from the respondents in each group was modified Tennessee self-concept scale.

Data collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) at an alpha level of 0.05. In conclusion, summary of results reveal that the students exposed to direct teaching technique and film modelling techniques each performed better than the control group on the acquisition of physical, moral and social self-concept. Further, the result of the study reveals that gender has no significant mean effect on overall self-concept. Also it was revealed from the results that film modelling technique proved more effective than direct teaching for improvement of moral self concepts of schooling adolescents. Based on these findings the researcher made vital recommendations and suggestions for further studies.

Background of the Study
Human society is constantly being changed by the physical
environment just as the latter is changed by human activities. Thus, the
observation by Ekpo (1996) that the difficulties being experienced by the
adolescents in educational, socio-personal and vocational adjustments could
be attributed in part to environmental changes due to the increasing
complexity of the contemporary world in both developed and developing
countries. These difficulties create psycho-social problems among the
schooling adolescents that have potential impact on their low self-concept
formation. In Nigeria, specifically during the civil strife of between 1967 and
1970 the resultant imbalance in the social, economic and political systems
reached alarming stages.

The psycho-social decay distorted and disoriented the moral development of the citizens, particularly those of the children and adolescents. As a result, such social vices as vandalization of public properties, stealing, armed robbery, cultism, forgery, examination malpractice, sex abuse among others became enthroned among the youthful adolescents (Ekpo, 1996). These vices may be, were the products of the prevalent low self-concept formation in some Nigerian adolescents.

The above scenario experienced among Nigerian adolescents
conforms with the later findings expressed by Olowu (1983, 1985) in
Nigeria, Mwanalushi (1979) in Zambia and Krystall (1973) in Kenya, that
the changes in the socialization environment and the process of people,
particularly the youths in developing/transitional societies had a warping
effect on the self-concepts of adolescents. They listed such transitional
societies as mainly African, Asian and Latin-American societies that are
moving from their traditional ways of life to the new ways of the Western
cultures. These changes which are by-products of such transition, are often
accompanied by uncertainty and unpredictability, which in turn engender
insecurity and anxiety which ultimately affect the self-concept of people and

Perhaps in realization of the obvious negative consequence of society
infested with psychologically maladjusted adolescents that the Federal
Government of Nigeria in the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004,
Revised) entrenched a formal guidance and counselling Programme in her
secondary school system aimed at taking care of such students’
maladjustment problems.

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