MOTIVATION AND JOB PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN ETIM EKPO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
- Background of the Study
Education has been recognized as the fundamental basis on which any Nation could function effectively. Its socio-political and economic viability depend so solely on the qualitative education given to her citizens. Any nation that wants to be recognized, as a developed country must build us human resources firmly. Hence, a country is said to be technologically developed it majority of her populace are educated (Iheanocho, 2004). Therefore, there is need to motivate those that impact the needed knowledge or those that build and would character must be motivated adequately because motivation is the key to performance and improvement. Hence, it is believe the task set, for him, even when such tasks or assignment are difficult or seen uninteresting (Udosen & Ubom, 2004).question that may arise is, what is Motivation?
Motivation comes from the Latin root movers, which means to move, so motivation can mean the process of arousing the interest of an individual to move towards a certain goal. Herzberg (1978) defines motivation as all those phenomena, which are involved in the stimulation of actions towards particular objectives where previously, there was little of no movement towards these goals. Whitley (1996), defines motivation as the inner desire, which prompts people to act in a certain way. Motivation involves a member of psychological factors start and maintained activities of personal goals.
Motivation is not completely a new term. What is interesting about it is that it is commonly assumed to be a good thing that goes in influencing individuals behavior and job performance at work. Hence, last and Kirkpatrick, (1990) concluded that the success of any system of education depends to large extent on the number of teachers their quality and devotion to duty and their effectiveness on the job. It is a result of this central position of the teacher that it is can rise above the quality of it. Teachers (Afe, 2002, FGN,) motivations in education have several effects on how teachers teach and their behavior towards subject matter. Or word (2003) opines that motivation of teachers in teaching and learning process can direct behavior towards particular goals, leads to increase effort and energy, enhance cognitive processing, increase initiation of and persistence in activities determine what consequences are reinforcing and it can also lead to improve performance. Orpheus, (2002) is at the view that motivated teachers always look for better ways to do their teaching job. They are more quality oriented and are more productive. Therefore, it means that that motivated Teachers are determine to give their best to achieve the maximum output (qualitative education).
Motivation can be in form of regular payment of salary, single benefit: such as allowance, bones on the job environment, maintaining high degree of relationship and improving the teachers general well being. Hence, the teacher that enjoys the above named items is bond to give all his best in discharging at his duty because he would desire the satisfaction of being a teacher. In educational parlance motivation plays a great vole, when to good performance and high productively to the sustenance of national growth and development and also, the welt are at us citizens at large. According to Alu, Eya, Odo, Ede, (2001) education is an ancient enterprise designed to be a vehicle of social changes and over development of self culture and society.
Education is a process designed to assists persons to grow.
In view of the forgoing Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004), stated that “Nigerian philosophy of education, therefore is based on the integration of the individual into a sound and effective citizen an equal opportunities for all citizens of the nation at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels, both inside and outside the former school system consequently, ‘teachers’ education will continue to be given a major emphasis in all our educational planning because, on education system can rise above the quality of this teachers.
Therefore, various purposes or aims of teacher’s education should be inculcated into our schools. It will be necessary for the provision of highly, motivated conscious and efficient classroom teachers for all level of our educational system and also encourage teacher’s commitment to the teaching profession.
According to Peothisberger (1978), wile motivating power money and new arts could not be ignored emphasis should be shitted
From economic man who draw attention on production attitude and job satisfaction. Also Osuji (2007) stated that it has become increasingly clear that beyond economics needs, man has some social psychological needs that should be satisfied in order to elicit behavior towards job-performance or productivity.
The Teachers are the ones who translate educational philosophy and objective into knowledge and skill and transfer them to the students in the classroom. Classroom climate is important in Teachers’ motivation it a Teacher experiences the classroom as safe, healthy, happy place with supportive resources and facilities for Teaching for optional learning, he/she tends to participate more than expected in the process of management, administration and the over empowerment of the school. Professionally a Teacher is the once who commands and emit the image of one who improvers knowledge and the physical condition of the classroom through orderliness, discipline and control. Much and medley (2006) affirms that what takes place in the classroom, even though the classroom itself is not an island is critical. Therefore, Fagbamiye (2007) reported the high rate of Teachers leaving the job in some secondary schools Lagos state as well as the widely expressed view of wishing to leave without bothering to resign their job. This would not have been the case if Teaching were to be as remunerative as other professions or occupation. Recognizing the claim that fairly Teachers are well motivated in terms of remuneration, promotion, allowance and bonus, like other profession, one then expects that “to him who much is given, much is also expected from him; and this should be reflected in higher productivity. Denga (2004) states that, the image at the average Nigerian Teacher seems low and this his morals, likely because of low, job satisfaction arising from the social circumstances surrounding his origin and the work place too.
It is often observed that a group of Teachers in the school system work harder and are thus more productive than others.
Such Teachers are generally move co-operative, enthusiastic and offer happier than other. They attend to students’ needs more promptly, regularly and more understanding their other colleagues. School job to them is more of a pleasurable pursuit then a chore.
Each morning such teachers are eager to go to school. These variations in performance and behavior raise a pertinent question of psychological interest in other words, what are the causes of these variations?
In trying to provide an answer Albanese (2007) in his study of human behavior and motivation postulates that job performance (JP) is a function (F) of situational factors (SF), and defines situational factors as embracing abilities and skills (AS), role perception (RP) and motivation (M). That is JP= (SF, A/S, RP, and M), while abilities, skills are role perceptions are very much within the capacity of individuals to influences, motivation to essentially a managerial responsibility.
Performance is the ability of a Teacher to produce agreed upon effects in a given context (Usman, 2010). It refers to results and not personality; it is not what a person brings to the situation, but what he produces out by a situation by managing it appropriately. It represents outputs not inputs, not so much of what a teacher dose, but what he achieves.
As a word, job performance is Synonymous with such words as actuation, stimulation, encouragement, inducement, prompting and inspiration. Thus for an employee to improve his/her performance, such an employee needs to be impel, propel and move him to action.
For the employee to perform his job more effectively, the administrator must be fully aware at the various motivations and incentives used in the school system and how to use these to edict positive behaviours in his subordinates. Edem (1987), sees, educational planning and administration as a system aortic development and projection of goals, strategies for achieving those goals co-coordinating the efforts of people towards the achievement of the stated objectives, supervising all educational activities, implementing and evaluating educational programmes adroitly and cost effectively; add directed toward its primary aims at job performance, learning and teaching.
In school setting, teacher’s performance can be mapped well through arranging training programmes for the teachers and they well gait motivated and their confidences will also increases. Griffin (2008) explored that the job performance of an individual is determined by three factors, example, motivation, work environment and ability, to do work. Chandrasekhar (2011) in his study of job performance opined that work place environment impact on employee morale productivity and job performance both positively and negatively. If the workplace environment is not like by employees, they get de-motivated and poorly designed work Timings, unsuitable authorities or duties, lack of appreciation and lack of personal decision making opportunity makes employees working in such environment to be dissatisfies, stressed on themselves and it impacts on employees job performance.
It is not uncommon to see teacher looking frustrated, downcast mendicant and dejected especially when they are not paid their salary for two or three months. Under such situations a teacher resourcefulness and dedication to teaching cannot be well assured, having been put into such pitying condition whereby he goes borrowing money every month from his counterpart in other occupations to pay back at the end of the month.
The institutionalization of such late pay mints seems to have made him a regular customer to such colleague.
Ibekwe, (2008) observed that some schools are even well located for any meaningful teaching to be done. The physical environment notwithstanding, some principal may be as autocratic that most teachers decry being in such places and often times, friction characterize the authority teacher relationships to the extent that the teacher’s energy for any effective and meaningful job performance is often highly reduced. Some of the teachers live for away in the suburbs where the house rents are not as high as in the city center. Teachers therefore face both accommodation and transport problem to the extent that even the preparation of their work at home is often impeded and consequently he enters the class unprepared and disillusioned.
Ndifon, (2004) also state that differential rewards introduced into the school system whereby science teachers are given science allowance of an extra amount at the end of each month, seen to dampen the mind of their colleagues who seems to work even more than those science teachers and at times put in extra house to get their students on the right footing.