Variables And Social Adjustment Of Junior Secondary School Students In Ikot Ekpene Education Committee Akwa Ibom State

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VARIABLES AND SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN IKOT EKPENE EDUCATION COMMITTEE AKWA IBOM STATE

ABSTRACT

The study was undertaken to examine the influence of School Variables on Social Adjustment of Junior Secondary School Students in Ikot Ekpene Education Committee, Akwa Ibom State. Five research questions and five null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. An expost-facto design was adopted and the population of the study comprised 8533 junior secondary one (JS1)students in 67 public and private schools. Multi-staged methods of stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used to select 853 Junior Secondary one (JS 1) students from public and private secondary schools for the study. School Variables and Social Adjustment Questionnaire (SVSAQ) developed by the researcher was used for the study. The instrument was content validated by two test and measurement experts and one Educational Psychologist. The reliability of the instrument was determined using Cronbach Alpha and the reliability co-efficient of .92 was established. Independent t-test and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data at.05 level of significance. The findings of the study reveal amongst others that there is significant influence of school variables on social adjustment of junior secondary school students; that there is a significant influence of school proprietorship on social adjustment of junior secondary school students in private and public schools. There is a significant influence of Boarding and Day school on social adjustment of junior secondary school students. Based on the findings it is recommended that parents should be encouraged to send their wards to boarding schools with strict management as this would build in them self confidence, team spirit and good leadership qualities then, single-sex schools should be encouraged for girls as this would help them to be focused and work in all disciplines irrespective of the barriers. Government through the Ministry of Education should lessen the bureaucratic style of leadership so that certain decisions could be taken in schools that can help students adjust.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 CHAPTER                           TITLE                                                                            PAGE

                                                Cover page                –           –           –           –           –           i

Title page       –           –           –           –           –           –           ii

Declaration – –           –           –           –           –           –           iii

Certification  –           –           –           –           –           –           iv

Dedication     –           –           –           –           –           –           v

Acknowledgements –           –           –           –           –           vi

Abstract         –           –           –           –           –           –           vii

Table of Contents     –           –           –           –           –           viii

List of Tables            –           –           –           –           –           –           xi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

 1.1      Background of the Study    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           1

1.2       Statement of the Problem    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           4

1.3       Purpose of the Study           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           5

1.4       Significance of the Study    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           5

1.5       Research Questions             –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           6

1.6       Null Hypotheses       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           7

1.7       Delimitations of the Study –           –           –           –           –           –           –           7

1.8       Operational Definition of Terms   –           –           –           –           –           –           8

           

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1       Theoretical Framework       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           9

2.1.1  Constitutional Factor- Anomie Theory      –           –           –           –           –           9

2.2.2    Psychosocial Theory of Social Adjustment        –           –           –           –           10

2.1.3   Cognitive theory-Jean Piaget         –           –           –           –           –           –           15

2.2       Conceptual Review –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           16

 

 

2.2.1   School Proprietorship (private and public)

and Social Adjustment        –           –           –           –           –           –           –          16

2.2.2   Single Sex and Co-educational School on Social Adjustment  –           –           24

2.2.3   School Location (urban/rural) on Social Adjustment    –           –           –           32

2.2.4   School Accommodation (boarding and day) and Social Adjustment  –           37

2.2.5   Social Adjustment    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           43

2.3       Empirical Review     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           45

2.4       Summary of Related Literature Reviewed           –           –           –           –           –           49

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD

3.1       Design of the Study             –           –           –           –           –           –           –           51

3.2       Area of the Study     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           51

3.3       Population of the Study      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           52

3.4       Sample and Sampling Technique  –           –           –           –           –           –           53

3.5       Instrumentation        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           53

3.5.1   Validation of the Instrument          –           –           –           –           –           –           53

3.5.2   Reliability of the Instrument          –           –           –           –           –           –           54

3.6       Administration of Instrument         –           –           –           –           –           –           54

  1. 7 Method of Data Analysis    –           –           –           –           –           –           –          54

 

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

                                    OF FINDINGS

 

4.1       Data Analysis and Result    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           55

4.1.1   Research Question one       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           55

4.1.2   Research Question two       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           56

4.1.3   Research Question three     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           57

4.1.4   Research Question four      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           57

4.1.5   Research Question five       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           58

4.1.6   Hypothesis  one        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           59

4.1.7   Hypothesis  two        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           60

4.1.8   Hypothesis  three     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           60

4.1.9  Hypothesis  four        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           61

4.1.10 Hypothesis  five       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           62

4.2       Discussion of Findings        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           63

4.2.1   School Proprietorship and Social Adjustment of Junior Secondary                              School   Students    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           63

 

  • School Type (single sex and Co-educational Schools) and Social                             Adjustment of  Junior Secondary  School student       –           –           –           –           64

 

  • School Accommodation (Boarding and Day) and Social Adjustment

of Junior Secondary School Student                     –           –           –           –           –           64

 

4.2.4   School  Location and Social Adjustment of Junior

Secondary School Students            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           66

  • Joint influence of School Variables on Social Adjustment of Junior

Secondary School Students           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           66

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND

                                    RECOMMENDATIONS 

 

5.1       Restatement of the Problem           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           68

5.2       Description of the Procedures Used         –           –           –           –           –           68

5.3      Summary of the Study         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           69

5.4       Implication of the Study     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           71

5.5       Conclusion    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           71

5.6       Recommendations   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           72

5.7       Suggestions for Further Research  –           –           –           –           –           –           73

REFERENCES          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           75

APPENDICES –         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           88

 

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE                                              TITLE                                                                  PAGES

 

     1                 Descriptive analysis of the difference in Social

                        adjustment of Junior Secondary School

Students in Private and Public Schools. –    –           –           –           55

 

     2                 Descriptive analysis of difference in

                        Social Adjustment of Junior Secondary

School Students in Single Sex and

Co-educational Schools.           –           –           –           –           –           –           56

 

     3                 Descriptive analysis of the difference in

social adjustment of Junior Secondary

School students in boarding and day schools.      –           –           57

     4                 Descriptive analysis of the difference in social

adjustment of Junior Secondary School students

in Urban and Rural schools School.   –           –           –           –           58

 

     5                 Multi-regression analysis of the joint influence of School

Proprietorship (private/public),

School type (single sex/co-educational,

School location (urban and rural) and

School accommodation (boarding and day) on social

adjustment of Junior Secondary School Students.        –        –        58

 

     6                 Independent t-test analysis of the difference in

Social adjustment of Junior Secondary

School Students in Private and Public schools.    –           –           59

 

     7                 Independent t-test Analysis of the difference

in Social Adjustment of

Junior Secondary School Students in

Single- sex and Co-educational Schools.   –           –           –           60

 

     8                 Independent t-test analysis of the

difference in Social Adjustment

of Junior Secondary School Students in

Boarding and Day Schools.     –        –        –        –        –        61

 

    9                 Independent t-test Analysis if the significant

difference in social Adjustment of Junior

Secondary School Students in Urban or

Rural Schools.     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        61

 

    10               Analysis of variance of the  Multiple Regression of

difference in School Proprietorship (private/-public),

School Type (single sex and co-educational)

School accommodation (boarding and day),School

location (urban and rural) on social adjustment

of junior secondary school s                     –        –        –        –        62


INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER ONE

 1.1      Background of the Study

School is an institution of learning where students acquire knowledge for the betterment of tomorrow. According to Jimoh (2013) it is an institution designed for the teaching of students under the direction of teachers and other significant people. There are various variables that makes a school. In this work, the researcher has focused on school variables such as proprietorship (public and private), school type (single sex and co-educational) accommodation (boarding and day), location (rural and urban) and social adjustment of students.

School type (single-sex and co-educational) is another school variable, this involve boys only school or girls only school and both boys and girls going to school together in same school environment or the same classroom. School type has its advantages and disadvantages. Single –sex education also known as  single-gender education is the practice of conducting education where male and female students attend separate classes or in separate buildings or schools. The practice was common in the 19th century, particularly in secondary education. Single sex in many cultures is advocated on the basis of tradition as well as religious groups. Recently, there has been a surge of interest and establishment of single-sex schools due to educational researches (Riordon, 2009). Advocate of single-sex believed that there is a persistent gender differences in educational settings and such differences merits educating them separately. Single-sex schools are characterized by decreased distraction in learning, reduces students behavoiur problems, promotes sense of community among students, improve students self-esteem and reduces sexual harassment among students and many other benefit. Proponents of co-educational schools have state the benefit of co-educational schools as reducing sexism and encourages participation is wider society. They believe that girls educated alongside with boys encourage participation and competition among students. Marsh (2011) stated that co-educational schools encourage harmonious relationship  between the two sexes, promotes understanding knowledge and mutual respect for each other.In recent years, an increasing number of educational system all over the world have welcomed the involvement of public and private entities including parents, non-governmental organization, missions and enterprises in funding and management of schools. Part of broadening the responsibility for schools beyond the government is to provide greater choice for parents and spur up students creativity and innovation within schools. Ownership of educational institutions in Nigeria is between the public and private sectors. The public sector refers to government at the three tiers- federal, state and local government while the private involves the individuals or group of persons, organizations or missions coming together to establish and run an educational institution at any level of the educational system. Both the public and private schools is said to offer the students an ample opportunity for learning and socialization; some secondary schools provide students with good facilities, amenities and social supports while others have not. According to Omode (2015) the private schools are characterized by good management system, proper curriculum planning and implementation, good facilities, well planed academic calendar and timely payment of teacher’s salary. There is a well stated curriculum that gives room for extra-curricular activities which may help students adjust in school.

Another school variable involved in this study is school accommodation. The accommodation here depicts the place of residence of the students. It could be boarding or Day. Boarding students are those who live and feed from the school for the duration of the term while day students are those who come from home or other accommodation outside the school compound. The Boarding school is characterized by all round learning, the student have access to the facilities 24hrs a day; the library, the classroom, the football pitch, the teachers are available to the students in the boarding house, though some researchers like Memon (2007) had stated that children at boarding schools pass through distress of the home sickness, lack of emotional expression and feeling of distraughtfulness. But Jensen and Overganrd (2003) argued that as compared to boarders, day students bear a high risk of adopting unhealthy habits, such as truancy, break bounds and lateness to school. The researchers believed that boarding school can help student adjust and become well disciplined member of the society since adjustment does not only stop at the school.

School location involves urban or rural schools. Urban schools are those located in towns and cities while rural schools are locate in remote villages. Urban schools are characterized by busy environment, good facilities, well built libraries, excursions where students are taken to different places like the zoo, museum and other attractive sights to learn and gain more knowledge. Some of these schools are exposed to computers, high technologies and conducive environment for learning. Rural schools are said to be close to nature, a peaceful and serene environment but they are not up to date. According to Okeke (2007) Nigerian rural schools are characterized by incompetent teachers, lack of basic learning facilities, lack of infrastructure, co-curricular activities and non-functional counselling unit. These may be affecting the social adjustment of students.

Having gone through the school variables, the researcher noticed that all students in these schools seem to be exhibiting the same characteristics. Students from both public and private schools, boarding and day schools single-sex and co-educational schools exhibit adjustment problems such as lieing, truancy, fighting, crying, bulling, stealing, aggression and breaking of bounds. Yahaya (2004) stated that students exhibit maladaptive behaviours such as lieing, truancy, lateness to school, poor relationship with fellow students, rudeness to teachers, disrespect to school authorities, drug-abuse, illicit sex, violent demonstration, poor attitude to cleanliness and noise making. Social adjustment is the ability to adapt to physical environment as well as social demands. It involves fitting with the society, not breaking it’s laws, not overstepping the boundary of the customary behaviour and  not setting one’s self against the ideals of a group. But this seems not to be the case in our secondary schools today thus creating the gap which this study seeks to fill. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of school variables (school proprietorship, type, accommodation, location and the combination of all these variables) on social adjustment of junior secondary school students in Ikot Ekpene Education committee.  .

 

1.2       Statement of the Problem

There are persistent cases of social adjustment problems among junior Secondary school student in Akwa Ibom State. Students exhibit behaviours such as fighting, stealing, bulling, truancy lateness to school and all sort of wanton misdeaminors. These problems seem to defy most remedial measures and tend to relate to one another. Various views and explanations on the social, culture and psychological influence on students’ poor social adjustments abound in text whereas research data on the influence of school variables and social adjustment is scanty and mostly based on assumptions. Thus creating the gap in which this work seeks to fill. The problem of this study therefore states “What is the influence of school variables (school proprietorship, school type, school accommodation and school location) on social adjustment of junior secondary school students in Ikot Ekpene Education committee.

 

1.3      Purpose of the Study

The general purpose of this study was to examine the influence of school variable on the social adjustment of junior secondary school students in Ikot Ekpene Education Committee.

Specifically, the research sought to examine the:

  1. Influence of school proprietorship (private and public) on social adjustment of junior secondary school students.
  2. Influence of single sex and co-educational schools on social adjustment of junior secondary school students.
  3. Influence of school location (rural and urban) on the social adjustment of junior secondary school students
  4. Influence of school accommodation (boarding and day) on social adjustment of junior secondary school students.
  5. Joint influence of school proprietorship (private/public) single sex/co-educational schools, school location (urban and rural) public and private school and boarding/day schools on social adjustment of junior secondary school students.

 

1.4       Significance of the Study

The outcome of this study would be relevant to school administrators, teachers, parents, counsellors and indeed all stakeholders in the secondary school system as it is hoped that it will provide data on the state of students’ school variables and social adjustment in secondary schools.

School counsellors who play a major and significant role in providing counselling services would be in a position to evaluate their services in the light of the data with a view to stream-lining same for effective service delivery.

The study would help school proprietors see the need to create conducive environment that is safe and secure for effective teaching and learning. Such conducive environment will need to include co-curricular activities like dramatic clubs, English and literary clubs, cultural groups, sports clubs, young farmers clubs and so on. These co-curricular activities will engender students proper socialization and healthy adjustment and channeling energies into correcting students in the various school types.

This study would provide the ministry of education with useful information on school variables and social adjustment of students’ in schools. Such information will incite the ministry of education to take proactive measures which may include protecting the rights of the vulnerable students. Finally, the study will create awareness to the students to shun social vices and become well adjusted both socially and academically in schools. The study will help parents to make the right choice of secondary school for their wards.

 

1.5       Research Questions

The following research questions were raised.

  1. What is the influence of school proprietorship (public and private) on social adjustment of junior secondary school students?
  2. What is the influence of school type (single sex or co-educational) on social adjustment of junior secondary school students?
  3. What is the influence of school accommodation (boarding/day) on social adjustment of junior secondary school students?
  4. What is the influence of school location (urban/rural) on social adjustment of junior secondary school students?
  5. What is the joint influence of school proprietorship (private/public) school type (single sex/co-educational), school location (urban and rural) school accommodation (boarding/day) on the social adjustment of junior secondary school students?

 

1.6       Null Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were tested at .05 level of significant.

  1. There is no significant influence of school proprietorship (private/public) on the social adjustment of junior secondary school students.
  2. There is no significant influence of school type (single sex and co-educational) on social adjustment of junior secondary school students.
  3. There is no significant influence of school accommodation (boarding or day) on social adjustment of junior secondary school students.
  4. There is no significant influence of school location (urban and Rural) on the social adjustment of junior secondary school students.
  5. There is no significant joint influence of school proprietorship (private/public), (single sex/co-educational) school location (urban and rural), and school accommodation (boarding and day) on social adjustment of junior secondary school students.

 

1.7       Delimitation of the Study

The study is restricted to a sample size of 853 junior secondary school (JS1) students from both private and public secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene Education Committee. These committee is made up of three local government areas Obot Akara, Essien Udim and Ikot Ekpene. It is further delimited to the topic:  school variables and social adjustment of junior secondary school students which include school proprietorship (public/private), school type (single sex/co-educational schools), school location, and school accommodation (boarding/day school) and interaction of variables as well as social adjustment. The study was delimited to secondary schools in  Ikot Ekpene Education Committee of  Akwa Ibom State.

 

1.8       Operational Definition of Terms

Proprietorship: This refers to the ownership and management of the schools under study. In this study, school proprietorship is based on private and government ownership.

 School type: This subsumes and aims to distinguish between single-sex schools and co-educational school. For the purpose of this study, school gender compositions are examined: boy’s only school, girls only schools, and co-educational schools.

 School accommodation: This term as used in this study describes whether students are boarding at school or are day students attending schools from home.

School Location: This depicts rural or urban area where the schools are located.

Social Adjustment: This involves students’ ability to adapt or fit into the school environment, not breaking its laws, not overstepping the boundary of the customary behaviours and not setting oneself against the ideals of the school.

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