IMPACT OF MARINE POLLUTION ON SHIPPING OPERATION IN THE SOUTH-SOUTH GEOPOLITICAL ZONE
1.1 Background of the study
The internationally recognized definition for the marine environment was developed by Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection (GESAMP), currently known as Aspects Of Marine Environmental Protection, which states: ‘Introduction by man, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy into the marine environment (including estuaries) resulting in such deleterious effects as harm to living resources, hazard to human health, hindrance to marine activities, including fishing, impairment of quality for use of sea-water, and reduction of amenities’. Marine pollution is classed as point source or non-point source. Point source pollution occurs when there is a single, identifiable, and localized source of the pollution. That is, “point source” means any discernible, confined and discrete conveyance, including but not limited to any pipe, ditch, channel, tunnel, conduit, well, discrete fissure, container, rolling stock, concentrated animal feeding operation, or vessel or other floating craft, from which pollutants are or may be discharged. An example is directly discharging sewage (i.e. water-carried waste, in solution or suspension, which is intended to be removed from a community, also known as wastewater) and industrial waste into the ocean Non-point source pollution occurs when the pollution comes from ill-defined and diffuse sources. It arises from a broad group of human activities for which the pollutants have no obvious point of entry into receiving watercourses. Obviously, non-point source pollution is much more difficult to measure, identify and control than point sources. These include agriculture tural storm water discharges and return flows from irrigated agriculture, urban runoff (from roofs, streets, parking lots, etc), transportation (roads, railways, pipelines, hydro-electric corridors) etc. Industries and businesses may discharge wastes to street gutters and storm drains. Overloading and malfunction of septic systems lead to surface runoff. Effects of Marine Pollution on coastal environment cum resources such as degradation, damage to ecosystems, damage to the esoteric value of beaches, lethal and sub-lethal effects on marine fauna and flora etc. were elaborately discussed, using graphic and plate illustrations to elucidate understanding. The study is of the view that marine pollution has enormous impact on our coastal resources and is totally unavoidable due to Global population explosion and technological innovations by man. However, it was asserted that the problem could be minimized through careful management. Pragmatic recommendations were therefore put forward on how to minimize the impact of marine pollution on our coastal resources, with specific reference to Nigeria. The coastal environment generally refers to any piece of land next to, bothering or adjourning the sea shore. The extent of the coastal environment also varies immensely, depending on the object of the context within which it is being defined. Sometimes, it simply means the narrow linear corridor of shore line separating the continental shelf from the oceanic land mass. At other times it may be considered to extend both largely inwards, towards the continental shelf and outwards, farther away from the shore line towards the terrestrial land mass. For the purposes of evaluating marine pollution sources and its effects on the coastal environment, the latter description is considered more suitable. Environmental pollution is the pollution of air, land and water in many ways. There are several reasons for environmental pollution, such as from agriculture, industry, and urban sources. Environmental pollution has drastically changed the air, water and terrestrial ecosystems as a result of the industrial revolution in Europe, North America and China in the 19th century. Moreover, different types of toxic gases and different forms of carbon components were produced from factories, transport, and energy sectors has resulted in different changes in the global climate and weather patterns, and become a source of contamination of land, as well as the ocean environment where the average temperature and acidity are increasing. In addition, many other chemicals like fertilizers used in the agricultural industry also contribute to the pollution of the seas over vast areas (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution, 2007) Consequently, the coastal environment can be said to transcend the shore line up to the exclusive economic zone seaward and across the estuarine and intertidal zones to the lower reaches of the fresh water tributaries, sandy beaches and sometimes even arid continental land masses landwards, where such bounds the world Seas and Oceans.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Marine pollution is classed as point source or non-point source. Point source pollution occurs when there is a single, identifiable, and localized source of the pollution. That is, “point source” means any discernible, confined and discrete conveyance, including but not limited to any pipe, ditch, channel, tunnel, conduit, well, discrete fissure, container, rolling stock, concentrated animal feeding operation, or vessel or other floating craft, from which pollutants are or may be discharged. It is in view of the above that the researcher intends to investigate the impact of marine pollution on shipping operation in the south-south geopolitical zone.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of the study is to ascertain the impact of marine pollution on shipping operation in south-south geopolitical zone in Nigeria. But to aid the completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following sub-objective;
i) To ascertain the impact marine pollution on shipping operation in Nigeria
ii) To investigate if there is any significant relationship between marine pollution and shipping operation.
iii) To ascertain the effect of marine pollution on the aquatic life
iv) To proffer possible solution to the identified problem
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
To aid the completion of the study, the following research question was formulated by the researcher;
i) Is there any effect of marine pollution on the shipping operation in south-south?
ii) Is there any relationship between marine pollution and shipping operation
iii) What is the effect of marine pollution on the health of see fairer?
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study; the researcher formulated the following hypotheses;
H0: marine pollution does not have any significant impact on shipping operation in the South-south geopolitical zone
H1: marine pollution does have a significant impact on shipping operation in the South-south geopolitical zone
H02: there is no significant relationship between marine pollution and shipping operation
H2: there is a significant relationship between marine pollution and shipping operation
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of great importance to the management of maritime industry, as the study seek to highlight the dangers of marine pollution on shipping activities; the study will also be of great importance to the national environmental agency as the study seek to enumerate the dangers of marine pollution on the environment, The study will also be of great importance to student who intend to embark on a study in similar topic as the findings of the study will serve as a pathfinder to them. Finally the study will be of great importance to students, teachers and the general public as the finding will add to the pool of existing literature.
1.7 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is limited to south-south geopolitical zone which comprises of six major state which are Akwa Ibom, Cross River Bayelsa, Rivers, Delta, Edo. But in the cause of the study emphasis was placed on Oro, port Harcourt and calabar which is the major costal lane in the geopolitical zone
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Marine is an adjective for things relating to the sea or ocean, such as marine biology, marine ecology and marine geology. As a noun it can be a term for a kind of navy, those enlisted in such a navy, or members of troops attached to a navy, e.g. the United States Marine Corps or the UK Royal Marines. In scientific contexts, the term almost always refers exclusively to saltwater environments, although in other contexts (e.g., engineering) it may refer to any (usually navigable) body of water.
Shipping, initially derived from the word relationship, is the desire by fans for two or more people, either real-life people or fictional characters (in film, literature, television etc.) to be in a relationship, romantic or otherwise. It is considered a general term for fans’ emotional involvement with the ongoing development of a relationship in a work of fiction. Shipping often takes the form of creative works, including fan fiction and fan art, most often published on the internet.
Marine pollution occurs when harmful, or potentially harmful, effects result from the entry into the ocean of chemicals, particles, industrial, agricultural, and residential waste, noise, or the spread of invasive organisms