RISK FACTORS OF CONTRACTING SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS AMONG STUDENTS
The aim and purpose of this research work is to look into student’s behavior and sexual activities which expose them to contracting sexually transmitted infections, level of awareness of students towards sexually transmitted infections, factors that combine to determine the risk factors of contracting sexually transmitted infections.
A survey research design was adopted for this study using a structured questionnaire; the population of the study was basically students in Ekosodin community, a simple random sampling technique, data and information collected were analyzed using frequency counts and percentages.
The result shows that the students have a high level of awareness concerning sexually transmitted infections showing that awareness level is not a risk factor of contracting sexually transmitted infections, students disputed the fact that pre – marital sex is a factor responsible for sexually transmitted infections which is not in accordance with WHO ( 2005 & 2008) global estimates on the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among youths from 15 – 49 years but due to the sensitive nature of this topic might have influenced the students response which deemed to perpetuate denial tendency. The response on the attitude of students towards the use of contraceptive revealed that it is not a factor responsible for sexually transmitted infections and to a large extent the reasons why students engage in sexual activities. The researcher made recommendations that would be used to prevent, control and enlighten students on the risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Content ——–vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the study——-1
Statement of Problems ——-6
Purpose of the Study——-8
Significance of the Study——-8
Scope/Delimitation of the Study—– 10
Limitation of the Study——- 10
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Concept of STI ‘s——- – 12
The various types of STI‘s—– – 15
Brief description on the types of STI’s—- -16
General testing and treatment ——25
A brief description of the non-sexually transmitted STI’s—26
Sources of infection/contracting of STI’s—-29
Factors responsible for STI’s– – – – – 30
Risk factors of STI’s—- – – – 33
Ways of preventing STI’s—– – 33
Treatment of STI’s—- – – – -36
The literature review summary – – – – – -36
CHAPTER THREE: METHOD OF THE STUDY
Design of the study——- 38
Population of the Study—— -39
Sample and Sampling Techniques—–39
Validity of Instrument——- 40
Reliability of Instrument—— -40
Administration of the instrument—–41
Method of Data Analysis——-41
CHAPTER FOUR; PRESENTATION OF DATA AND DISCUSSION
Discussion of findings – – —– 51
CHAPTER FIVE; SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Summary – – – – – – – 55
Conclusion- – – – – – – 57
Recommendation – – – – – – – CHAPTER ONE
Background to the Study
While sex is a part of a healthy lifestyle, it can as well expose us to serious sexually transmitted infections. There are many new cases of sexually transmitted infection occurrences among all ages and works of life. The need for the study of sexually transmitted infections among students has become indispensable in today’s contemporary society. While many individuals, societies and cultures around the world are yet to consent that sexually transmitted infections leads to various complications later in life, mostly because of their religion, socio cultural background and their belief system etc. In 2011, 11,000 cases of sexually transmitted infections were notified in Ireland. While young age is a risk factor, it is important to know that STIs are not only confined to young people. Health care professionals do not often discuss risky sexual behavior and STI prevention with middle age and older adults. According to Ravi and Nair (2011), viral and bacterial STIs are estimated over 250million cases yearly. In fact, 356,000 new cases occur daily. Controlling the spread of STIs is an important consideration with the high incidence of acute infections and complications, its socio – economic impact and its role in the transmission of HIV. STIs have reached epidemic levels and the number of new infections reported annually shows pattern of steady increase. Although population in developing countries is heterogeneous, it is young and the incidence and prevalence of STIs is likely to increase among persons aged 20 – 40years.
The factors that contribute directly and indirectly to high incidence of STIs include urbanization, unemployment, poverty, antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria and large numbers of people in the sexually active age group. Infection rates are similar in both women and men but women bear the major burden of complications. STIs are troublesome because they are difficult to identify, treat and control. They are dynamic than any other diseases prevailing in the community. Its epidemiological profile varies from country to country and region to region depending on the ethnographic, demographic, socio – economic and health factors. World health organization (2008) presented a report on global and regional estimates of the incidence and prevalence of four curable sexually transmitted infections which are chlamydia, trichomonas, vaginalis, which is common in adults between 15 and 49 years of age. These estimates were generated using the same approach as used to generate the 2005 global estimates. The 2008 estimates of the number of new cases for the four infections combined is 11% higher than the estimate for 2005. Worldwide sexually transmitted infections continue to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Although, the figure given is likely to be doubled at present. Sexually transmitted infections tools and interventions have been available for years because serious health problems are prevented if these infections are diagnosed and treated early. Viral infections such as herpes .genital warts and HIV aremuch more difficult to treat and in some cases no cure exists. More than one million people were been infected daily, about 60% of those infection occur in young people of 25years of age and 30% of the age group of 25years of age and 30% of the age group of 20years. Sexually transmitted infections occur frequently in girls more than the boys by ratio of nearly 2: 1. This is due to some environmental factors, natural phenomenon.
According to a source on immunization and infectious diseases: an informed parents’ guide (copyright @2006 American academy of pediatrics), sexually transmitted infections are spread through direct sexual contact. Teenagers and young adults have higher rates of sexually transmitted infections than any other age group and one of the main reasons is that they frequently have unprotected sex. They are also biologically more likely to develop an infection and theymay be likely to use health care services that could give them information on how to protect themselves against sexually transmitted infections. Others factors that give rise to the spread of sexually transmitted infections are population explosive. Marked increase in the number of young people, rural to urban migration and increasing educational opportunities. They also include social disruption like war, terrorism, civil unrest, international travel, broken homes, disharmony etc. It is worthy to note that these predisposing factors to STIs emanate from the environment one may find may find him or himself. Experience and education give rise to knowledge, attitude and practice towards health related issues.
World health organization (2007) global estimates suggest that more than 340million new cases of syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydial infection and trichomoniasis occur throughout the world up to 10% of the women who were not treated or inadequately treated for gonococcal and chlamydial infections may become infertile as a consequence. Reuters 2014 also discussed the issue of sexually transmitted infections and it aims to keep practitioners, trainees and researchers up to date in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted infections. Sexually transmitted infections cut – across gender, age, cultural, social and economic background. In spite of these facts, sexually transmitted infection has been observed to be very common among undergraduate students which make them prone. Environment and man are inseparable and complementary; these actually affect the way a man live and do things. Environmental factors can put pressure on man especially adolescents and youths to engage in sexual activities which may pose negative effects on their health.Moreoften than not a good number of adolescents drop out of school due to diseases and sickness which maybe as a result of sexually transmitted infections.This therefore calls for an urgent need for an investigation which informed the choice of this topic and I feel there is need for evaluation of risk factors of contracting sexually transmitted infections among students in Ekosodin community with a view to curb the tide and menace caused by sexually transmitted infections.
Statement of the Problem
It is assumed that a large number of university undergraduate students have heard about sexually transmitted infections and its consequences. Majority have pre – knowledge about the risk of contracting the infection. However, a number of undergraduate students who are emotionally and sexually active often ignore several warnings to engage in indiscriminate and unsafe sexual activities which them vulnerable to the risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections and sexual behavior.
The study will investigate the level of sexually transmitted infections using hostels in Ekosodin community. Knowledge of sexually transmitted infections among undergraduates, the general risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections, steps to follow to avoid being a victim of sexually transmitted infections and methods of educating and disseminating information to control the contractionofsexually transmitted infections among undergraduate students in Ekosodin community.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this research study is to examine the various factors that combine to determine the risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections among students in Ekosodin community. The level to which students in Ekosodin are knowledgeable about sexually transmitted infections, the intending inventory to provide an estimate of the risk factors and ways in which one can prevent the contraction of sexually transmitted infections. The study would also look into student’s behavior and sexual activities which expose them to contracting sexually transmitted infections.
Significance of the Study
The research project may be considered significant for several reasons. It is hoped that this study will enlighten students in Ekosodin community and the society at large concerning the risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections. Since sexually transmitted infections affect both male and female students, this study will reduce gender behaviors that would make them prone to sexually transmitted infections. This study to a large extent will consider the major factors responsible for sexually transmitted infections among students in Ekosodin community.
Finally, the result of the study will pave –way for better understanding of sexually transmitted infections in terms of causes types, effects, prevention, curative effort on sexually transmitted infections, management on students in Ekosodin community and Nigeria at large.
- What is the awareness level of students towards sexually transmitted Infections?
Does pre – marital sex contribute to sexually transmitted infections?
What is the attitude of students towards the use of contraceptive?
- What are the reasons why students engage in sexual activities?
Scope / Delimitation of the Study
The study is delimited to undergraduate students in Ekosodin community and to assess specifically the risk factors of contracting sexually transmitted infections and its prevalence.
In conducting a study like this, there are obvious limitation as to ways society perceive and regard people affected with sexually transmitted infections. Students in the community will be reluctant in giving out private information regarding the signs and symptoms they have in relation to sexually transmitted infections and other previous experiences.