THE EFFECTIVENESS IN USING MULTI-MEDIA IN PRESCHOOL EDUCATION
The study aimed at investigating the influence of Multi-media materials on preschool children’s learning achievement in number work in Little Angel Montessori.The use of Multi-media materials in teaching number work is minimal hence low achievement. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether the use of Multi-media materials influences their achievement of children in learning number work with special reference to the influence of Audio –Visual materials on children learning achievement in number work, the effect of printed materials in children’s learning achievement in number work and the effect of community resources on children is learning achievement in number work.
The literature reviewed on audio-Visual materials, Visual resources, printed resources and community resources in relation to academic achievement in number work. The study adopted descriptive survey. The population was 90 pre-school teachers and 850 pre-school children .The sample of the study included ,28 pre-school teachers and 255 pre-school children .Data was collected by using various instruments such as number work test was administered to children to determine the performance ,questionnaires were used to collect data from pre-school teachers, observation schedules was used to establish types of Multi-media/ materials available and observation check list was used to a certain types of printed materials and how they were used. The data was analyzed using quantitative and qualitative method and was presented in table and graphs. The findings of this study revealed that in adequate Multi-media materials had an effect on children’s performance in number work in preschool. The schools that had Multi-media materials children were able to carry out different activities and had good mastery of the content. While the pre schools that lacked the Multi-media materials the performance was poor and children could not master the content easily.
1.1 Background to the Study
UNESCO (1999) posits that the development of knowledge and skills in number work (mathematics) and science holds the key to Africa’s industrialization elevation and poverty eradication in the 21st century. Mathematics and science enhance learning of all other disciplines. Therefore there is need to put more Multi-media resources, in teaching and learning of mathematics. In Nigeria lack of information on what is happening in the ECD education sector has made it difficult to use lessons learnt from projects in planning and strategy formation.
According to the Ministry of Education, Science and technology MOEST (2006) the World is experiencing digital revolution where the economy is increasingly based on digital technology such as electronic computation. The education sector has no option other than to go digital so as to tap into the benefits of modernization. Shiundu and Omulando (1992) emphasized that such changes put tremendous pressure on the curriculum and Multi-media resources.
Waithaka (2005) posits that most Nigeria pre-school teachers are not well trained hence types of Multi-media resources seem not to be seen in number work (mathematics) lessons. Due to this factor there seems to be a poor foundation for pre-scholars in number work which leads to poor performance in this discipline at all levels right from pre-school to higher levels, of learning. Kli’banoff (2006) indicates the use of Multi-media materials has positive impact on children’s achievement in number work. Children handled with relevant and adequate Multi-media resources and qualified personnel have an advantage of acquiring number work (mathematics)
concepts and skills because teachers use relevant Multi-media materials which makes it easy to deliver the content and mastery of the concept without any difficult .
In the words of OLuwate (2010), Multi-media materials improve teachers’ creativity. As the teacher studies according to instruction he assimilates easily what knowledge to instil to learners, the best method to use to instil the skills and the best method to achieve this scope thus improving the teacher’s creativity hence leading the teacher to another level greater than where the teacher expects.
According to Fensham, P.J (1970) mathematical; teaching theory and practice, offers a range of experiences which introduce them to use mathematical concepts such as; singing number rhymes creating patterns with objects, sorting and grouping using a variety of objects. Children need to develop good mathematical understanding in order to function effectively as members of the society. To achieve the aim of functional numeric, children need to think flexibly and apply the knowledge to new situation; to solve practical problems and to experiment within mathematics itself so as to develop the ability to reason mathematically and communicate their reasoning to others. Maria Montessori (1870 – 1952) emphasized on the use of imaginative teaching materials. They lessen major weakness of verbalism, humanize and vitalize subject matter hence provide interesting approach to new topics and give initial correct impression.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
There are many factors that have contributed to low performance in mathematics and the use of Multi-media materials is one of the key factors among others. The use of Multi-media materials in number work is minimal that is why achievement in number work is very poor. Multi-media materials are very important in teaching number work since they help learners to master the concept so easily and help teachers to deliver the content with a lot of ease. Children learn by doing hence need materials that they can manipulate.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study was to establish whether the use of Multi-media materials influenced the achievement of pre-school children in learning of number work.
1.4 Research Objectives
The study was guided by the following objectives:
(i) To explain the influence of Audio –Visual materials on pre-school children’s learning achievement in number work in Little Angel Montessori School
- To determine the influence of Visual material on children’s learning achievement in number work in Little Angel Montessori School
- To examine the effects of printed materials on children’s learning achievement in number work in Little Angel Montessori School.
- To determine the effects of community resources on children’s learning achievement in number work in Little Angel Montessori School.
1.5 Research Questions
The study responded to the following questions:
- What is the influence of Audio -Visual materials on children’s achievement in learning number work in Liitle Angel Montessori school?
- How do the Visual materials influence children’s achievement in learning number work in Little Angel Montessori School?
- How do the printed materials influence children’s achievement in learning number work in Little Angel Montessori School?
- How do community resources influence children’s achievement in learning number work in Little Angel Montessori School?
1.6 Significance of the Study
It was hoped that the study of the effects of Multi-media materials on pre-school children’s achievement in learning number work generated information to education stakeholders and curriculum developers with basic information to stimulate further debate on the best approaches to stimulate the learning of mathematics in pre-schools and source of reference when researching on Multi-media materials.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
The results of the study were only generalized to the population involved in this study. The area of study was limited to Little Angel Montessori School.
The research instruments used did not bring out all aspects related to the topic under investigation.
1.8 Delimitations of the Study
The study was carried out among pre-school teachers and pre-school children of Little Angel Montessori School
1.9 Basic Assumptions
The study assumed that all Early Childhood centres had adequate and relevant resources for teaching number work and that the government and parents provided Multi-media materials for learning number work.
1.10 Definition of Terms
Multimedia- is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, video and interactive content. Multi-media materials are the tools and equipments used to carry body of the information to learners and they improve the teachers’ creativeness. They carry information of knowledge, understand skills, values attitude and curriculum content which is important for desired change in learner’s behaviour
Achievement– refers to an accomplishment which is shown by scores
Audio Visual Materials -are educational materials directed at both the sense of hearing and the sense of sight
Classification is the ordering of number into sets called number system such as natural numbers and the real numbers
County –It is an administrative region headed by a governor
Counting is the action of finding the number of elements of a finite set of objects. The traditional way of counting consists of continually increasing numbers.
District – This is one of the areas in which a county is divided for the purpose of organization, with official boundaries.
ECDE – Early Childhood Development Education. This is a program and curriculum for children in pre-school
Effect – The influence that something or somebody has or the way one behaves or how something develops
Influence – This refers to anything or something that has power to affect positively or
Learning –It is a lifelong relative permanent change in behaviour resulting from practicing and experience accumulated knowledge skills altitudes and values.
Number Recognition can be defined as the ability to identify and name basic numerals Number Sequence -is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed or list of numbers in a special order
Number work – It is a science of numbers quality and their interrelationships
Ordering is a generalization of the concept of a natural number that is used to describe a way to arrange a collection of object in – order one after the other Performance –It is a sub-sequent production of learning process
Printing Materials -these are learning materials used to describe printed materials produced by
printers or publishers such as books
Sub-county –It is a sub-administrative region within a county
Visual Materials- these are Multi-media devices such as charts that appeal to vision