CONSTRUCTION OF A MICROCONTROLLER BASED SECURITY USING SMART CARD

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CONSTRUCTION OF A MICROCONTROLLER BASED SECURITY USING SMART CARD

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page – – – – – – – i
Approval Page – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgement – – – – – iv
Abstract – – – – – – – v
Table of contents – – – – – vi
List of Tables- – – – – – – xi
List of Figures – – – – – – xii
Glossary of Symbols / Abbreviations – – xiii
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction – – – – – – 1
1.1 Areas of application – – – – 4
1.2 Aims and Objectives – – – 5
1.3 Project Scope – – – – – 5
CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature review – – – – – 6
2.1 Mechanism of Security of access system – – 7
2.1.2 Types of security access system – – – 8
2.1.3 Sound activated lock system – – 8
2.1.4 Shadow detector access system – – – 8
2.1.5 Pressure and pad sensitive security system – 9
2.1.6 Smartcard access system – – – 9
2.1.7 History – – – – – – 10
2.2 The components used – – – 12
2.2.1 The microcontroller – – – – 12
2.2.2 Elements of a microcontroller – – – 12
2.2.2.1 The CPU – – – – – – 13
2.2.2.2 Ram – – – – – – – 13
2.2.2.3 Eprom – – – – – – 14
2.2.2.4 Input / Output – – – – – 14
2.2.3 Relay – – – – – – – 14

2.2.4 Liquid crystal display
2.2.5 Key pad – –
2.2.6 Active components –
2.2.6.1 Transistor – – –
2.2.6.2 Diodes – –
2.3.0 Passive component –
2.3.1 Resistor – –
2.3.2 Capacitor – –
2.3.3 Transformer – –
2.4 Micro switches –
CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Design analysis of the electric circuit and

Mechanical unit – – – – – 25

3.1 Hardware design – – – – – 25
3.2 Keypad select module – – – – 27
3.3 Sliding door unit – – – – – 28
3.4 Alarm signal unit – – – – – 31
3.5 Display unit – – – – – – 32
3.5.1 Display unit calculation – – – – 33
3.6 89S52 microcontroller – – – – 34
3.6.1 Powering the microcontroller – – – 37
3.6.2 Crystal oscillator unit – – – – 39
3.7 smartcard unit – – – – – 39
3.8 Power supply unit – – – – – 40
3.8.1 Step down – – – – – – 41
3.8.2 Rectification – – – – – 41
Filtering – – – – – – 43
3.9 synchronous 12v DC motor – – – 44
3.10 mechanical unit – – – – – 45
3.10.1 Fabrication of component parts – – – 45
3.10.2 Mechanism casing – – – – – 46
3.10.3 Door post – – – – – – 46
3.10.4 The door – – – – – – 46

3.11 software development – – – – 47
3.11.1 text editor – – – – – – 47
3.11.2 Translator – – – – – 47
3.11.3 Link / locator – – – – – 48
3.11.4 Loader – – – – – – 48
3.11.5 Testing – – – – – – 48
3.11.6 Debugging – – – – – – 48
3.12 Development process – – – – 49
3.13 Program entry and editing – – 49
3.14 Assembly and linking – – – – 49
3.15 Hexadecimal conversion – – – – 50
3.16 Circuit design diagram – – – – 51

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Material selection, assembly process,

Cost analysis, test and result. – – – 52
4.1 Material selection – – – 52
4.2 Assembly process – – – 53
4.3 Cost analysis – – – – – 53
4.4 Test and Result – – – – 55

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Discussion of results, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Discussion of results – – – 56
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – 56
5.3 Recommendation – – – – 57
References

LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1: Resistor color coding – – – 21
Table 4.1: cost analysis – – – – – 54

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig 2.1: The CPU of a microcontroller – – 13
Fig 2.2: Diagram of a Relay – – – – 15
Fig 2.3: Keypad – – – – – – 16
Fig 2.4: Diagram of NPN and PNP Transistor – 17
Fig 2.5: Diagram of Resistor color coding – – 20
Fig 2.6: Diagram of a Transformer – – – 23
Fig 3.1: Block diagram of the project – – – 26
Fig 3.2(a): Diagram of Keypad increment button – 27
Fig 3.2(b): Diagram of Keypad decrement button – 27
Fig 3.2(c): Diagram of Keypad Adjust button – 28
Fig 3.2 (d): Diagram of Keypad Reset button – 28
Fig 3.3: Diagram of Relay Connection to the door – 29
Fig 3.4: Diagram of a Transistor – – – 31
Fig 3.5: Diagram of the alarm signal unit – – 31

Fig 3.6: Diagram of the microcontroller

Fig 3.7: Powering the microcontroller

Fig 3.8: Diagram of crystal oscillator unit

Fig 3.9: The smart card unit – –

Fig 3.10: Diagram of the power supply

Fig 3.11: Rectifier bridge – –
Fig 3.12(i): Single capacitor filter –
Fig 3.12(ii): Inductor filter – –
Fig 3.12(iii): Pie filter – – –
Fig: 3.13: Circuit Design Diagram –

GLOSSARY OF SYMBOLS / ABBREVIATIONS
I Current
V Voltage
R Resistance
F Frequency
C Capacitance
W Power
IC Integrated circuit
LED Light Emitting Diode
AC Alternating current
DC Direct current
CPU Central Processing Unit
Ohms
NPN Negative – Positive – Negative
PNP Positive – Negative – Positive

1/0 Input/output
Vcc +5v = 1
GND Ground (0v)
EA Enable
ALE Address Latch enable
PSEN Program Latch enable

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