HIV And Human Rights

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This Research Work is on

HIV And Human Rights

Title Page

Certification/Declaration

Approval Page

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of content

 

Chapter 1

Introduction

1:1 Introduction

1:2 Background of the Study

1:3 Statements of Problems

1:4 Objectives of the Study

1:5 Research Question

1:6 Study of the Hypothesis

1:7 Significance of the Study

1:8 Justification of the Study

1:9 Scope of the Study

1:10 Definition of Terms

 

Chapter 2

Literature Review

2:0 Introduction

2:1 Conceptual Clarification

2:2 Theoretical Framework

2:3 Literatures on the Subject Matter

 

Chapter 3

Research Methodology

3:0 Area of Study

3:1 Source of Data

3:2 Sampling Techniques

3:3 Method Data Collection

3:4 Method of Data Analysis

3:5 Reliability of Instrument

3:6 Validity of Instrument

3:7 Limitations of the Study

 

Chapter 4

Data Analysis

4:0 Introduction

4:1 Finding of the Study

4:2 Discussion of the Study

4:3 Summary

 

Chapter 5

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5:0 Summary of Findings

5:1 Conclusion

5:2 Recommendations

5:3 Proposal for Further Studies

 

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). AIDS is a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. Without treatment, average survival time after infection with HIV is estimated to be 9 to 11 years, depending on the HIV subtype. In most cases, HIV is a sexually transmitted infection and occurs by contact with or transfer of blood, pre-ejaculate, semen, and vaginal fluids. Non-sexual transmission can occur from an infected mother to her infant through breast milk. An HIV-positive mother can transmit HIV to her baby both during pregnancy and childbirth due to exposure to her blood or vaginal fluid. Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells.

HIV infects vital cells in the human immune system such as helper T cells (specifically CD4+ T cells), macrophages, and dendritic cells. HIV infection leads to low levels of CD4+ T cells through a number of mechanisms, including pyroptosis of abortively infected T cells, apoptosis of uninfected bystander cells, direct viral killing of infected cells, and killing of infected CD4+ T cells by CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes that recognize infected cells. When CD4+ T cell numbers decline below a critical level, cell-mediated immunity is lost, and the body becomes progressively more susceptible to opportunistic infections, leading to the development of AIDS.

 

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